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Presentation to the Senate Special Committee on Aging

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9061
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-01-28
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
  1 document  
Policy Type
Parliamentary submission
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-01-28
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Text
Thank you Madam Chair and Committee members for the opportunity to speak to you today. I am Briane Scharfstein, Associate Secretary General at the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) and a family physician by training. I am speaking on behalf of the CMA and our 67,000 physician members across the country. We commend the Senate for striking this Committee. We are concerned that the aging population has not received sufficient national policy attention. With regard to today's discussion I would note that the CMA has advocated for the elimination of mandatory retirement and we are pleased to see that in general, provincial jurisdictions have eliminated mandatory retirement based on what has become an arbitrary age cutoff. With some obvious exceptions, such as athletics, competence is not related to age per se for most areas of human endeavour. Where human activity may pose risk to the safety of others we believe that the best approach is to develop evidence-based tools and procedures that can be used to assess competence on an ongoing basis. While physicians play a significant role on a variety of fronts related to aging, I am going to focus my remarks on two specific areas: * Ensuring the competence of physicians; and * Fitness to operate motor vehicles and the role of physicians. Turning first to the competence of the medical workforce, physicians are making diagnoses and performing procedures on a daily basis, both of which may entail a significant amount of risk for our patients. I would add that this is being done in an era where medical knowledge is rapidly increasing. As a profession that continues to enjoy a high degree of delegated self-regulation, we recognize the importance of ensuring that physicians are and remain competent across the medical career lifecycle. This entails both an individual and collective obligation to: * engage in lifelong learning; * recognize and report issues of competence in one's self and one's peers; and * participate in peer review processes to assure ongoing competence. First and foremost, physicians have an individual ethical and professional obligation to maintain their competence throughout their career lifecycle. The CMA Code of Ethics calls on physicians to: * practise the art and science of medicine competently, with integrity and without impairment; * engage in lifelong learning to maintain and improve professional knowledge skills and attitudes; * report to the appropriate authority any unprofessional conduct by colleagues; and * be willing to participate in peer review of other physicians and to undergo review by your peers1 I would stress the importance of peer review in medicine, which is one of the defining characteristics of a self-regulating profession. Simply put, physicians are expected to hold themselves and their colleagues accountable for their behaviour and for the outcomes they achieve on behalf of their patients.2 The individual accountability that physicians have to themselves and to each other is reinforced by a collective accountability for lifelong learning and peer review that is mandated by the national credentialing bodies and by the province/territorial licensing bodies. With regard to lifelong learning, both national credentialing bodies require evidence of ongoing continuing professional development as a condition of maintaining credentials. The College of Family Physicians of Canada operates a Maintenance of Proficiency program that requires its certificants to earn 250 credits over five years.3 The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada operates a Maintenance of Certification Program that requires its Fellows to achieve 400 credits over a five year period with a minimum 40 in any single year.4 The Canadian Medical Protective Association, the mutual defence organization that provides liability coverage for the vast majority of physicians in Canada also plays a role in identifying high risk areas of medical practice and providing a range of educational materials and programs designed to mitigate such risk.5 Each province and territory has a licensing body - usually known as a College of Physicians and Surgeons that is established to protect the public interest. These colleges operate mandatory peer review programs that ensure that physician's practices are reviewed at regular intervals. These programs typically involve a review of the physician's practice profile based on administrative data, a visit to the physician's office by a medical colleague in a similar type of practice and an audit of a sample of patient charts, followed by a report with recommendations. In addition, most jurisdictions now have or will soon have in place a program pioneered in Alberta that provides a 360o assessment by administering questionnaires to a sample of a physician's patients, colleagues, and co-worker health professionals. These probe several aspects of competence and reports are provided back to the physician.6 Peer review is even more rigorous in the health care institutions where physicians carry out practices and procedures that involve the greatest potential risk to patients. Physicians are initially required to apply for hospital privileges that are reviewed annually by a credentials committee. These committees have the authority to renew, modify or cancel a physician's privileges. In between annual reviews a physician's day-to-day performance is subject to review by a variety of quality assurance processes and audit/review committees such as morbidity and mortality. Health care institutions in turn are subject to regular scrutiny by the Canadian Council on Health Services Accreditation which would include the oversight of physician practice among its review parameters. In summary, the medical profession subscribes to the notion that competence is something that must regularly be reviewed and enhanced across the medical career life cycle, and that such reviews and assessments must be grounded in evidence that is gathered from peers and other validated tools. Turning to our patients, one area that our members are regularly called on to assess competence is the determination of medical fitness to operate motor vehicles. To assist physicians in carrying out this societal responsibility, the CMA recently released our 7th edition of the Driver's Guide.7 What you will note about this 134 page guide is that the section on aging is only 3 pages long. The focus of the guide is on how substances such as alcohol and medications and a range of disease conditions such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease may impose risks on fitness to operate a range of motor vehicles including automobiles, off-road vehicles, planes and trains. It provides graduated guidelines that relate to the severity and stage of the condition. As is noted in the section on aging, while the guide acknowledges the greater prevalence of health conditions in older age groups and hence the higher crash rates among the 65 and over age group, it states that the high crash rates in older people cannot be explained by age-related changes alone. In fact, by avoiding unnecessary risk and possessing the most experience, healthy senior drivers are among the safest drivers on the road. Rather, it is the presence and accumulation of health-related impairments that affect driving that is the major cause of crashes for older people. Because older age per se does not lead to higher crash rates, age-based restrictions on driving are not supportable. Rather than focusing on arbitrary age cutoffs what are required are evidence-based tools such as the Driver's Guide that can be used to detect and assess conditions that may present at any point in the life cycle. I would like to return to the physician workforce and the practical implications of arbitrary age cutoffs. As you may know Canada is experiencing a growing shortage of physicians - the effects of which are about to be compounded as the first of the baby boomers turn 65 in 2011. Currently we rank 24th out of the 30 OECD countries in terms of physician supply per 1,000 population - our level of 2.2 physicians per 1,000 is one third below the OECD average of 3.0. As of January 2008, according to the CMA physician Master File there are just over 8,200 licensed physicians in Canada who are aged 65 or older. They represent more than 1 in 10 (13%) of all licensed physicians. Moreover, they are very active; they work on average more than 40 hours per week and in addition more than 40% of them still have on-call responsibilities each month. These doctors make vital contributions to our health care system. In conclusion, the CMA believes that the public interest is best served by ensuring that all competent physicians, regardless of age, are able to practice medicine. Artificial barriers to practice based on age are simply discriminatory and counter productive in an era of health human resource shortages. Finally Madam Chair, we hope that the CMA will be invited back to appear before your committee. We have long been concerned with the access of the senior population to health care services and I will leave you with a copy of our policy on principles of medical care of older persons.8 We also hope you will examine the issue of long-term care which has had little if any national policy attention. I will also leave you with a copy of our recent technical background report on pre-funding of long-term care that we tabled at the Federal Minister of Finance's Roundtable in November 2007.9 Thank you again for this opportunity and I would be pleased to answer any questions. REFERENCES 1 Canadian Medical Association. CMA Code of ethics.(Update 2004). http://policybase.cma.ca/PolicyPDF/PD04-06.pdf. Accessed 01/23/08. 2 Canadian Medical Association. Medical professionalism (Update 2005). http://policybase.cma.ca/dbtw-wpd/Policypdf/PD06-02.pdf. Accessed 01/23/08. 3 College of Family Physicians of Canada. Mainpro(r)Maintenance of Proficiency. http://www.cfpc.ca/English/cfpc/cme/mainpro/maintenance%20of%20proficiency/default.asp?s=1. Accessed 01/23/08. 4 Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Maintenance of Certification Program. http://rcpsc.medical.org/opd/moc-program/index.php. accessed 01/23/08. 5 Canadian Medical Protective Association. Risk management @ a glance. http://www.cmpa-acpm.ca/cmpapd03/pub_index.cfm?FILE=MLRISK_MAIN&LANG=E. Accessed 01/23/08. 6 College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta. Physician Achievement Review Program. http://www.cpsa.ab.ca/collegeprograms/par_program.asp. Accessed 01/23/08. 7Canadian Medical Association. Determining medical fitness to operate motor vehicles. CMA Driver's Guide 7th edition.Ottawa, 2006. 8 Canadian Medical Association. Principles for medical care of older persons. http://policybase.cma.ca/dbtw-wpd/PolicyPDF/PD00-03.pdf. Accessed 01/23/08. 9 Canadian Medical Association. Pre-funding long-term care in Canada: technical backgrounder. Presentation to the Federal Minister of Finance's roundtable, Oshawa, ON, November 23, 2007.
Documents
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Presentation to the Senate Subcommittee on Population Health

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9182
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-05-28
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
  1 document  
Policy Type
Parliamentary submission
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-05-28
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Text
On behalf of the CMA, I thank you very much for the opportunity to be here today and commend the Subcommittee for focusing on the critical issue of child health. My presentation today will focus on three areas: 1. What the CMA has done and plans to do in the area of children's health; 2. Why the CMA has chosen to focus on the early years as a priority; and 3. What the CMA recommends to the Subcommittee and government for action in the area of children's health. The CMA's Role & Next Steps Physicians see the adverse effects of poor child health all too often and we strongly believe that all children should have access to the best possible start in life. That healthy start includes opportunities to grow and develop in a safe and supportive environment with access to health services as needed. The CMA is proud to have been a partner in the Child Health Initiative (CHI), an alliance between the CMA and the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) and the College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) that has pressed for improvements in child health and the development of Child Health Goals. The CHI held the Child and Youth Health Summit last year where it developed a child health charter based on three principles: * a safe and secure environment; * good health and development; and * a full range of health resources available to all. The Charter states that all children should have things such as clean water, air and soil; protection from injury and exploitation; and prenatal and maternal care for the best possible health at birth. Further, the charter recognizes the need for proper nutrition for proper growth and long term health; early learning opportunities and high-quality care, at home and in the community; and a basic health care including immunization, drugs, mental and dental health. Delegates at the Summit also endorsed the Child Health Declaration and the Child and Youth Health Challenge, a call to action to make the charter a reality. Going forward, the CMA will invest considerable time and effort to develop policy targeting children from birth to five years of age. To that end the CMA will host the Child Health Expert Consultation and Strategy Session on June 5-6, 2008. The purpose of this consultation is to create a discussion paper to: * First, identify how CMA can help physicians improve the health of children under five; and second, * Identify the key determinants of early child health and identify goals and recommend ways to achieve optimal health outcomes for children under five. This paper will inform a Roundtable Discussion of Child Health Experts in Fall 2008 where we hope to produce a final report on the Key Determinants of Children's Health for the Early Years. We then hope to be invited to come before this Subcommittee once again to present this report and discuss our conclusions and recommendations. Why the Early Years The CMA is focusing on the period from birth to five years old because it is a critical time for children and when the physicians of Canada are perhaps in the best position to make a difference. Recent human development research suggests that the period from conception to age six has the most important influence of any time in the life cycle on brain development. As well, we are all well aware that Canada could be and should be performing better in comparison to other OECD nations in a number of key areas such as infant mortality, injury and child poverty. We also know that: * Early screening for hereditary or congenital disease must take place between the ages of zero and five in order to provide effective intervention; and * Brain and biological pathways in the prenatal period and in the early years affect physical and mental health in adult life. Physicians are well positioned to identify and optimize certain conditions for healthy growth and development. Physicians can identify and prescribe effective interventions following many adverse childhood experiences in order to improve health outcomes for children and as they grow into adults. Recommendations The CMA believes that there are a number of actions government could be taking today in the area of children's health. First, Canada should not be at the bottom of the list of developed countries when it comes to spending, as a percentage of GDP, on early childhood programs and development. Investing in early development is essential for an optimal start to life and a physically, mentally and socially healthy childhood. Second, we need to improve our surveillance capability to better monitor changes in children's health because we can't manage what we can't measure. That is why the CMA recommends the creation of an annual report card on child health in Canada. Third, nearly one child in six lives in poverty in Canada. This can impact a child's growth and development, his or her physical and mental health and ultimately the ability to succeed as teenagers and adults. Governments can and must do more. Finally, there are a number of recommendations within the recently released Leitch Report in areas such as injury prevention, environment vulnerabilities, nutrition, aboriginal and mental health. The CMA strongly supports these recommendations and urges this Subcommittee to consider them. However, if there are two recommendations within the Leitch Report that the CMA believes government could and must act upon immediately, they would be the creation of a National Office of Child Health and a Pan-Canadian Child Health Strategy. Conclusion In conclusion, the CMA strongly supports the Subcommittee's work and its focus on child health. Again, we hope to return to see you again this fall with specific recommendations to address child health determinants, especially those affecting children from birth to age five. Canada can and should be among the leading nations on earth in terms of children's health status. Our children deserve no less. Thank you.
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Aboriginal peoples and mental illness

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9210
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Physician practice/ compensation/ forms
Resolution
GC08-21
The Canadian Medical Association urges Canadian medical schools to include in their curricula material related to the deleterious effect of negative stereotyping of Aboriginal peoples suffering from mental illnesses and substance use disorders.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Physician practice/ compensation/ forms
Resolution
GC08-21
The Canadian Medical Association urges Canadian medical schools to include in their curricula material related to the deleterious effect of negative stereotyping of Aboriginal peoples suffering from mental illnesses and substance use disorders.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association urges Canadian medical schools to include in their curricula material related to the deleterious effect of negative stereotyping of Aboriginal peoples suffering from mental illnesses and substance use disorders.
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Acute care beds

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9224
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC08-43
The Canadian Medical Association and provincial/territorial medical associations will work with governments to implement transparent and publicly available principles for the supply and effective management of functional acute care beds.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC08-43
The Canadian Medical Association and provincial/territorial medical associations will work with governments to implement transparent and publicly available principles for the supply and effective management of functional acute care beds.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association and provincial/territorial medical associations will work with governments to implement transparent and publicly available principles for the supply and effective management of functional acute care beds.
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Patient-focused funding

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9233
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC08-53
The Canadian Medical Association recognizes that any patient-focused funding model should incorporate an incentive for providing timely access to services close to the patient's home to minimize increases in medical travel costs.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC08-53
The Canadian Medical Association recognizes that any patient-focused funding model should incorporate an incentive for providing timely access to services close to the patient's home to minimize increases in medical travel costs.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association recognizes that any patient-focused funding model should incorporate an incentive for providing timely access to services close to the patient's home to minimize increases in medical travel costs.
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Mental health services and Canadian Forces members

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9235
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC08-26
The Canadian Medical Association will work with the Department of National Defence to provide high quality evidence-based mental health services to Canadian Forces members and their families resulting from operational stress injury including post-traumatic stress syndrome.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC08-26
The Canadian Medical Association will work with the Department of National Defence to provide high quality evidence-based mental health services to Canadian Forces members and their families resulting from operational stress injury including post-traumatic stress syndrome.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association will work with the Department of National Defence to provide high quality evidence-based mental health services to Canadian Forces members and their families resulting from operational stress injury including post-traumatic stress syndrome.
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Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC08-70
The Canadian Medical Association and provincial/territorial medical associations call on governments to work in close collaboration with health care stakeholders to include information on novel psychoactive substances as part of prevention activities aimed at avoiding devastating effects in Canadian provinces.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC08-70
The Canadian Medical Association and provincial/territorial medical associations call on governments to work in close collaboration with health care stakeholders to include information on novel psychoactive substances as part of prevention activities aimed at avoiding devastating effects in Canadian provinces.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association and provincial/territorial medical associations call on governments to work in close collaboration with health care stakeholders to include information on novel psychoactive substances as part of prevention activities aimed at avoiding devastating effects in Canadian provinces.
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Children's health and environmental toxins

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9239
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC08-71
The Canadian Medical Association urges the federal government to participate in Canadian-based research studies on children's health and environmental toxins.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC08-71
The Canadian Medical Association urges the federal government to participate in Canadian-based research studies on children's health and environmental toxins.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association urges the federal government to participate in Canadian-based research studies on children's health and environmental toxins.
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Physician assistants

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9243
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC08-75
The Canadian Medical Association will work with the Canadian Association of Physician Assistants and appropriate stakeholders to develop a national certification and licensing process for physician assistants that ensures competency and portability across Canada.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC08-75
The Canadian Medical Association will work with the Canadian Association of Physician Assistants and appropriate stakeholders to develop a national certification and licensing process for physician assistants that ensures competency and portability across Canada.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association will work with the Canadian Association of Physician Assistants and appropriate stakeholders to develop a national certification and licensing process for physician assistants that ensures competency and portability across Canada.
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National environmental health strategy

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9250
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC08-80
The Canadian Medical Association and provincial/territorial medical associations call on the federal government to work with the provinces and territories to adopt a national environmental health strategy.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC08-80
The Canadian Medical Association and provincial/territorial medical associations call on the federal government to work with the provinces and territories to adopt a national environmental health strategy.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association and provincial/territorial medical associations call on the federal government to work with the provinces and territories to adopt a national environmental health strategy.
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Obesity prevention and management

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9256
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC08-87
The Canadian Medical Association encourages provincial/territorial medical associations to work in conjunction with the Canadian Obesity Network to help develop chronic care models for obesity prevention and management.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC08-87
The Canadian Medical Association encourages provincial/territorial medical associations to work in conjunction with the Canadian Obesity Network to help develop chronic care models for obesity prevention and management.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association encourages provincial/territorial medical associations to work in conjunction with the Canadian Obesity Network to help develop chronic care models for obesity prevention and management.
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Canadian tuberculosis control programs

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9260
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC08-91
The Canadian Medical Association advocates for mobilization of federal resources to facilitate Canadian tuberculosis control programs to screen refugees and immigrants new to Canada in accordance with current health policy.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC08-91
The Canadian Medical Association advocates for mobilization of federal resources to facilitate Canadian tuberculosis control programs to screen refugees and immigrants new to Canada in accordance with current health policy.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association advocates for mobilization of federal resources to facilitate Canadian tuberculosis control programs to screen refugees and immigrants new to Canada in accordance with current health policy.
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Caring in a Crisis: The Ethical Obligations of Physicians and Society During a Pandemic

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9109
Last Reviewed
2019-03-03
Date
2008-02-23
Topics
Ethics and medical professionalism
Population health/ health equity/ public health
  1 document  
Policy Type
Policy document
Last Reviewed
2019-03-03
Date
2008-02-23
Topics
Ethics and medical professionalism
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Text
Inherent in all health care professional Codes of Ethics is the duty to provide care to patients and to relieve suffering whenever possible. However, this duty does not exist in a vacuum, and depends on the provision of goods and services referred to as reciprocal obligations, which must be provided by governments, health care institutions and other relevant bodies and agencies. The obligation of government and society to physicians can be seen as comparable to the obligations of physicians to their patients. The recent experience of Canadian physicians during the SARS epidemic in Toronto has heightened the sensitivities of the medical profession to several issues that arose during the course of dealing with that illness. Many of the lessons learned (and the unanswered questions that arose) also apply to the looming threat of an avian flu (or other) pandemic. Canadian physicians may be in a relatively unique position to consider these issues given their experience and insight. The intent of this working paper is to highlight the ethical issues of greatest concern to practicing Canadian physicians which must be considered during a pandemic. In order to address these issues before they arise, the CMA presents this paper for consideration by individual physicians, physician organizations, governments, policy makers and interested bodies and stakeholders. Although many of the principles and concepts could readily be applied to other health care workers, the focus of this paper will be on physicians. Policies regarding physicians in training, including medical students and residents, should be clarified in advance by the relevant bodies involved in their oversight and training. Issues of concern would include the responsibilities of trainees to provide care during a pandemic and the potential effect of such an outbreak on their education and training. A. Physician obligations during a pandemic The professional obligations of physicians are well spelled out in the CMA Code of Ethics and other documents and publications and are not the main focus of this paper. However, they will be reviewed and discussed as follows. Several important principles of medical ethics will be of particular relevance in considering this issue. Physicians have an obligation to be beneficent to their patients and to consider what is in the patient's best interest. According to the first paragraph of the CMA Code of Ethics (2004), "Consider first the well-being of the patient". Traditionally, physicians have also respected the principle of altruism, whereby they set aside concern for their own health and well-being in order to serve their patients. While this has often manifested itself primarily as long hours away from home and family, and a benign neglect of personal health issues, at times more drastic sacrifices have been required. During previous pandemics, many physicians have served selflessly in the public interest, often at great risk to their own well-being. The principle of justice requires physicians to consider what is owed to whom and why, including what resources are needed, and how these resources would best be employed during a pandemic. These resources might include physician services but could also include access to vaccines and medications, as well as access to equipment such as ventilators or to a bed in the intensive care unit. According to paragraph 43 of the CMA Code of Ethics, physicians have an obligation to "Recognize the responsibility of physicians to promote equitable access to health care resources". In addition, physicians can reasonably be expected to participate in the process of planning for a pandemic or other medical disaster. According to paragraph 42 of the CMA Code of Ethics, physicians should "Recognize the profession's responsibility to society in matters relating to public health, health education, environmental protection, legislation affecting the health and well-being of the community and the need for testimony at judicial proceedings". This responsibility could reasonably be seen to apply both to individual physicians as well as the various bodies and organizations that represent them. Physicians also have an ethical obligation to recognize their limitations and the extent of the services they are able to provide. During a pandemic, physicians may be asked to assume roles or responsibilities with which they are not comfortable, nor prepared. Paragraph 15 of the CMA Code of Ethics reminds physicians to "Recognize your limitations and, when indicated, recommend or seek additional opinions or services". However, physicians have moral rights as well as obligations. The concept of personal autonomy allows physicians some discretion in determining where, how and when they will practice medicine. They also have an obligation to safeguard their own health. As stated in paragraph 10 of the CMA Code of Ethics, physicians should "Promote and maintain your own health and well-being". The SARS epidemic has served to reopen the ethical debate. Health care practitioners have been forced to reconsider their obligations during a pandemic, including whether they must provide care to all those in need regardless of the level of personal risk. As well, they have been re-examining the obligation of governments and others to provide reciprocal services to physicians, and the relationship between these obligations. B. Reciprocal obligations towards physicians While there has been much debate historically (and especially more recently) about the ethical obligations of physicians towards their patients and society in general, the consideration of reciprocal obligations towards physicians is a relatively recent phenomenon. During the SARS epidemic, a large number of Canadian physicians unselfishly volunteered to assist their colleagues in trying to bring the epidemic under control. They did so, in many cases, in spite of significant personal risk, and with very little information about the nature of the illness, particularly early in the course of the outbreak. Retrospective analysis has cast significant doubt and concern on the amount of support and assistance provided to physicians during the crisis. Communication and infrastructure support was poor at best. Equipment was often lacking and not always up to standard when it was available. Psychological support and counselling was not readily available at the point of care, nor was financial compensation for those who missed work due to illness or quarantine. Although the Ontario government did provide retrospective compensation for many physicians whose practices were affected by the outbreak, the issue was addressed late, and not at all in some cases. It is clear that Canadian physicians have learned greatly from this experience. The likelihood of individuals again volunteering "blindly" has been reduced to the point where it may never happen again. There are expectations that certain conditions and obligations will be met in order to optimize patient care and outcomes and to protect health care workers and their families. Because physicians and other health care providers will be expected to put themselves directly in harm's way, and to bear a disproportionate burden of the personal hardships associated with a pandemic, the argument has been made that society has a reciprocal obligation to support and compensate these individuals. According to the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics report We stand on guard for thee, "(The substantive value of) reciprocity requires that society support those who face a disproportionate burden in protecting the public good, and take steps to minimize burdens as much as possible. Measures to protect the public good are likely to impose a disproportionate burden on health care workers, patients and their families." Therefore, in order to provide adequate care for patients, the reciprocal obligation to physicians requires providing some or all of the following: Prior to a pandemic - Physicians and the organizations that represent them should be more involved in planning and decision making at the local, national and international levels. In turn, physicians and the organizations that represent them have an obligation to participate as well. - Physicians should be made aware of a clear plan for resource utilization, including: - how physicians will be relieved of duties after a certain time; - clearly defined roles and expectations, especially for those practicing outside of their area of expertise; - vaccination/treatment plans - will physicians (and their families) have preferential access based on the need to keep caregivers healthy and on the job; - triage plans, including how the triage model might be altered and plans to inform the public of such. - Physicians should have access to the best equipment needed and should be able to undergo extra training in its use if required. - Politicians and leaders should provide reassurances that satisfy physicians that they will not be "conscripted" by legislation. During a pandemic - Physicians should have access to up-to-date, real time information. - Physicians should be kept informed about developments in Canada and globally. - Communication channels should be opened with other countries (e.g. Canada should participate in WHO initiatives to identify the threats before they arrive on our doorstep). - Resources should be provided for backup and relief of physicians and health care workers. - Arrangements should be made for timely provision of necessary equipment in an ongoing fashion. - Physicians should be compensated for lost clinical earnings and to cover expenses such as lost wages, lost group earnings, overhead, medical care, medications, rehabilitative therapy and other relevant expenses in case of quarantine, clinic cancellations or illness (recognizing that determining exactly when or where an infection was acquired may be difficult). - Families should receive financial compensation in the case of a physician family member who dies as a result of providing care during a pandemic. - In the event that physicians may be called upon in a pandemic to practice outside of their area of expertise or outside their jurisdiction, they should to contact their professional liability protection provider for information on their eligibility for protection in these circumstances. - Interprovincial or national licensing programs should be developed to provide physicians with back-up and relief and ensure experts can move from place to place in a timely fashion without undue burden. - Psychological and emotional counselling and support should be provided in a timely fashion for physicians, their staff and family members. - Accommodation (i.e. a place to stay) should be provided for physicians who have to travel to another locale to provide care; or who don't want to go home and put their family at risk, when this is applicable, i.e. the epidemiology of the infectious disease causing the pandemic indicates substantially greater risk of acquiring infection in the health care setting than in the community. - Billing and compensation arrangements should ensure physicians are properly compensated for the services they are providing, including those who may not have an active billing number in the province where the services are being provided. After a pandemic - Physicians should receive assistance in restarting their practice (replacing staff, restocking overhead, communicating with patients, and any other costs related to restarting the practice). - Physicians should receive ongoing psychological support and counselling as required. C. How are physician obligations and reciprocal obligations related? Beyond a simple statement of the various obligations, it is clear that there must be some link between these different obligations. This is particularly important since there is now some time to plan for the next pandemic and to ensure that reciprocal obligations can be met prior to its onset. Physicians have always provided care in emergency situations without questioning what they are owed. According to paragraph 18 of the CMA Code of Ethics, physicians should "Provide whatever appropriate assistance you can to any person with an urgent need for medical care". However, in situations where obligations can be anticipated and met in advance, it is reasonable to expect that they will be addressed. Whereas a physician who encounters an emergency situation at the site of a car crash will act without concern for personal gain or motivation, a physician caring for the same patient in an emergency department will rightly expect the availability of proper equipment and personnel. In order to ensure proper patient care and physician safety, and to ensure physicians are able to meet their professional obligations and standards, the reciprocal obligations outlined above should be addressed by the appropriate body or organization. Conclusion If patient and physician well-being is not optimized by clarifying the obligations of physicians and society prior to the next pandemic, in spite of available time and resources necessary to do so, there are many who would call into question the ethical duty of physicians to provide care. However, the CMA believes that, in the very best and most honourable traditions of the medical profession, its members will provide care and compassion to those in need. We call on governments and society to assist us in optimizing this care for all Canadians.
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Tobacco Control (Update 2008)

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9133
Last Reviewed
2019-03-03
Date
2008-05-27
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
  1 document  
Policy Type
Policy document
Last Reviewed
2019-03-03
Date
2008-05-27
Replaces
Tobacco Control (2001)
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Text
Tobacco Control (Update 2008) Tobacco is an addictive and hazardous product, and the number one cause of preventable disease and death in Canada. Canada's physicians, who see the devastating effects of tobacco use every day in their practices, have been working for decades toward the goal of a smoke-free Canada. The CMA issued its first public warning concerning the hazards of tobacco in 1954 and has continued ever since to advocate for the strongest possible measures to control its use. It is estimated that over 37,000 deaths each year are attributable to tobacco use. Tobacco imposes a heavy burden on society in the form of hospital care, disability, absenteeism and loss of productivity. Health Canada estimates that tobacco costs this country $17 billion annually of which $4.4 billion constitutes direct health care costs. Since 2001, Canada's smoking rate has fallen from 25% to below 20%; the decline has been particularly dramatic among young people. The drop is attributed mainly to a comprehensive tobacco control strategy that employs a variety of different interventions, including high prices and taxes, bans on smoking in public places, restrictions on advertising and sponsorship of tobacco products, and social marketing programs to de-normalize tobacco use and the tobacco industry. While Canada is to be congratulated on its success to date, it needs to maintain an environment that encourages Canadians to remain tobacco free, if it is to sustain and improve upon these rates. To ensure such an environment, the CMA believes that all governments in Canada should continue to implement a comprehensive, coordinated and effective tobacco control strategy which should include the following elements: Legislation and regulation The CMA supports strong comprehensive tobacco control legislation, enacted and enforced by all levels of government. Many strong laws and regulations have already been enacted; but some areas remain to be addressed. The CMA recommends that Canadian governments enact the following measures to strengthen tobacco control: Advertising and promotion: The CMA supports a total comprehensive ban on all advertising and promotion of tobacco. In 2007, the Supreme Court of Canada declared that such a ban is constitutional. Canada currently permits a limited amount of tobacco promotion, and must enact a comprehensive ban if it wishes to comply with the terms of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), to which it is a signatory. In order to make the current promotion restrictions complete, Canada should enact: - a ban on the sale of non-tobacco products displaying tobacco brand names, logos or colours; - a nationwide ban on the display of tobacco products at point of sale, as has been implemented in some provinces; - a ban on all tobacco-brand marketing associated with the sponsorship of sports, cultural and other events. In addition, the CMA recommends that the tobacco industry be prohibited from using contests or similar events as promotional activities; and - restrictions on cross-border advertising of tobacco products. Tobacco manufacturers make frequent use of subtle marketing messages to render smoking attractive and glamorous to young people. The CMA supports educational and public relations initiatives aimed at countering these messages. For example, movie classification systems should restrict access by children and youth to films that portray tobacco use and tobacco product placement. Descriptors and packaging: The CMA supports a ban on the use of misleading terms such as "light" and "mild" to describe tobacco products with low tar content. There is no evidence that low-tar cigarettes reduce the health risk to smokers. The CMA also calls for an end to brand extensions, such as colours, numbers and code words, which are being used to replace descriptors such as "light". One way to negate the risk of misleading labelling is to require that tobacco products be sold in plain packages - a measure that Canada was among the first countries to consider in the 1980s. These packages should display prominent, simple and powerful health warnings, such as the graphic pictorial warnings pioneered by Canada, as well as quit tips and information on product content and health risks. There should also be a minimum package size for all tobacco products, to guard against the use of small-size "kiddie packs" for single sales of cigars or cigarillos. Access: The CMA recommends that existing regulations involving the sale of tobacco to minors be strictly enforced, with substantial fines for violators. Restrictions on buying tobacco products should be enacted for Canadians of all ages. In addition to supporting existing bans on cigarette vending machines and self-service displays, the CMA recommends tightening the licensing system to limit the number of outlets where tobacco products can be purchased. The more restricted is tobacco availability, the easier it is to regulate. Product regulation: The CMA congratulates the Government of Canada on requiring that tobacco products be modified to reduce their risk of starting fires. In addition, the CMA recommends that the federal government set ceilings on the content of toxic ingredients such as tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide in tobacco products, and lower these ceilings progressively. The federal government should exercise its legislative power to regulate the content of tobacco products, for example, by banning flavourings such as menthol and clove. The CMA recommends that any new products or product changes made by the tobacco industry be studied and evaluated by an independent research body, prior to being approved for marketing. Financial disincentives: Price controls are one of the most effective means of discouraging smoking, particularly among young people; a 10% rise in cigarette prices has been associated with a 4% decrease in tobacco use by teenagers. The CMA supports high prices and taxes on tobacco products, and recommends that governments progressively raise taxes as a disincentive to use. All taxes collected from tobacco products should be allocated to providing health care for Canadians, including programs to discourage smoking. Sale of contraband tobacco has become a major problem in recent years. To discourage the smuggling of lower-cost cigarettes, the CMA recommends that the federal government work with other countries to ensure that tobacco prices are harmonized across national borders. In addition, all levels of government should take the strongest possible measures to control the sale and distribution of contraband tobacco, on their own and in cooperation with other affected jurisdictions. Sustainable programs: Effective implementation of a comprehensive tobacco control program requires an ongoing commitment by all levels of government. The CMA calls on governments to commit to sustained, well-funded and comprehensive programs to reduce tobacco use, combining policy interventions with educational and social-marketing interventions including mass media campaigns. These programs should reflect current best practices, and be evaluated regularly for effectiveness and impact. Support for global tobacco control: Effective tobacco control measures such as those described above are required not only in Canada; but worldwide, particularly in developing countries, where multinational tobacco companies are promoting their products aggressively to make up for loss of revenue in their Western markets. Canada was one of the first countries to ratify the WHO's FCTC; the CMA commends the Government of Canada for showing this leadership and hopes it will continue to do so by implementing all elements of the FCTC in Canada, and providing financial support for implementation globally. Reduction of tobacco use in high-risk populations The tobacco strategy recommended above involves population-based tools, which have demonstrated their effectiveness in addressing an epidemic that touches every Canadian to some extent. These should be augmented with tools to reach "high-risk" or "hard-to-reach" populations, such as: Young people: Most current smokers in Canada started smoking before the age of 17, many before the age of 12. Chewing tobacco is becoming increasingly popular among young people, adding to the already considerable risk that they will become predisposed to cigarette use. Young people are particularly vulnerable to peer pressure, and to tobacco industry marketing tactics. The CMA supports continued health promotion and social marketing programs aimed at addressing the reasons why young people use tobacco, preventing them from starting to use tobacco and encouraging them to quit, and raising their awareness of tobacco industry marketing tactics so that they can recognize and counteract them. These programs should be continuously available in schools and should begin in the earliest primary grades. The CMA also recommends to provincial/territorial and municipal governments that tobacco use be banned, both outdoors and indoors, on all school properties and post-secondary campuses. Aboriginal peoples: Tobacco has ceremonial significance among First Nations peoples; the harm associated with tobacco arises not from its ceremonial use but from its daily, repeated abuse. It is estimated that almost 60% of Aboriginal people smoke. Tobacco control policies such as bans on smoking in public places and on sales to minors, may be poorly implemented on reserves. The CMA recommends that governments work with Aboriginal leaders in developing meaningful, well-funded programs to discourage tobacco use on reserves, and in implementing policies that raise the level of tobacco control on First Nations' communities to FCTC standards. Other populations at risk. Some populations, such as pregnant women, may be at particularly high health risk from tobacco use. Other populations, for example people on low incomes, have higher smoking rates than the overall Canadian population and may not have received the full benefit of existing tobacco control programs. Interventions should be created specifically for these target groups, to augment rather than replace programs designed for the overall population. They should address the concerns of target groups in a culturally relevant manner and should be designed with their input. Control of environmental tobacco smoke Second-hand or environmental tobacco smoke is an established health hazard, particularly for children, pregnant women and people with respiratory problems. Nearly all provinces and territories, and the federal government, have enacted legislation banning smoking in public places and workplaces. The CMA has always supported this move; in 2003, we committed to holding annual meetings only in jurisdictions where legislation ensured a 100% ban on smoking in indoor public places. The CMA encourages all smokers to restrict their smoking to areas where it will not jeopardize the health of others, and particularly encourages Canadians to keep their homes and cars smoke-free. All jurisdictions should work toward banning smoking in cars when children are present, and in other locations, such as day care centres, in which second-hand smoke may constitute a hazard to non-smokers. Accountability of the tobacco industry Internal industry documents have revealed that tobacco manufacturers knew for many years about the dangerous and addictive nature of their products but consistently suppressed this knowledge, and misinformed the public, when promoting them. The CMA recommends that the federal government initiate a transparent review of the practices of the tobacco industry and closely monitor its activities. The CMA also encourages initiatives aimed at bringing the industry's duplicitous activities to the attention of the public. The tobacco industry has taken a number of steps to promote itself as a good corporate citizen, and the CMA urges Canadians to be aware of such self-serving moves. Since 2004, the CMA has urged the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board to divest itself of its tobacco holdings. Recently, the tobacco industry has made a bid for legitimacy in the research field by establishing partnerships with academic centres or sponsoring research activities. The CMA opposes the involvement and/or sponsorship of the tobacco industry in education and research at universities, colleges and medical research institutions and recommends that all Canadian medical schools adopt policies banning donations and/or grants from the tobacco industry. The CMA advocates eliminating the Canadian tobacco-growing and tobacco-manufacturing industries and deplores the domestic manufacture of tobacco products for export. The CMA supports stringent reporting requirements on the tobacco industry concerning all aspects of manufacturing, distribution and sale; this information should be made available to the public regularly. The CMA also supports in principle efforts to hold the tobacco industry legally accountable for the health care costs attributable to tobacco use. Any settlements from such lawsuits should be used specifically for health care (including tobacco-control programs) and not diverted to any other purposes. Helping patients become smoke-free The CMA believes that the health care sector should act decisively to prevent and reduce tobacco use. Smoking should not be permitted in health care facilities. Pharmacies should refrain from selling tobacco products, and those provinces and territories which have not banned sales of tobacco products in pharmacies and other health care facilities are urged to do so. Smoking is prohibited at the CMA and at all its official and social functions. The association has a long-standing policy of refusing to accept advertising from tobacco companies for any of its publications and refusing to purchase or hold tobacco-product stocks in investment portfolios for its members. The CMA recommends that those few physicians who still smoke become non-smokers. Physicians should refrain from stocking magazines that carry tobacco advertising and refuse to invest in tobacco-industry stocks. Helping patients become tobacco-free is one of the most important services a health professional can offer; even a brief counselling session with a health care provider on the dangers of smoking and the importance of quitting is a cost-effective method of tobacco control. Physicians and other health professionals can discourage tobacco use by practising systematic clinical tobacco interventions, which may include: - routinely counselling children and youth against starting to smoke or chew tobacco; - taking advantage of "teachable moments," such as pregnancy or respiratory illness, to empathetically motivate smokers to quit; - asking each patient about current smoking status and readiness to change; and - offering personalized care, which may include setting a target quit date and offering behavioural counselling and pharmacotherapy. The CMA recommends that clinical tobacco intervention be recognized as an essential part of medical care and a core medical service. Pharmacotherapy has been established as an effective therapy for smoking cessation and should be made affordable for patients who require it. The CMA has taken an active role in developing and disseminating tobacco-control resources for physicians, their office staff and their patients. In 2001, the CMA and eight other health professional associations released a joint statement affirming the vital role of health professionals in counselling patients against tobacco use. The CMA will continue to build on these recommendations and its previous activity, working with other stakeholders toward the goal of a tobacco-free Canada.
Documents
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Health Canada's new radon exposure guidelines

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy11689
Last Reviewed
2019-03-03
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC08-84
The Canadian Medical Association urges the federal government to ensure that private residences and public and commercial buildings in Canada are appropriately tested to meet Health Canada's new radon exposure guidelines.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2019-03-03
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC08-84
The Canadian Medical Association urges the federal government to ensure that private residences and public and commercial buildings in Canada are appropriately tested to meet Health Canada's new radon exposure guidelines.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association urges the federal government to ensure that private residences and public and commercial buildings in Canada are appropriately tested to meet Health Canada's new radon exposure guidelines.
Less detail

Lessons from the frontlines: A collaborative report on Pandemic H1N1

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9840
Last Reviewed
2018-03-03
Date
2010-08-26
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
  1 document  
Policy Type
Policy document
Last Reviewed
2018-03-03
Date
2010-08-26
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Text
Lessons from the frontlines: A report on Pandemic H1N1 from Canadian Medical Association, The College of Family Physicians of Canada, National Specialty Society for Community Medicine One year ago, a novel influenza virus claimed its first victim in Mexico, and soon the world was plunged into its first influenza pandemic in 40 years. Although pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) swept across the globe, we were fortunate this time as the virus was far less virulent than first feared. Now that pH1N1 has peaked and faded, it is time to look at what we learned and how it will help us plan for the next national public health emergency. The College of Family Physicians of Canada, the National Specialty Society for Community Medicine and the Canadian Medical Association have joined together to present a picture of lessons learned from the front lines of the pandemic. Together we represent over 80,000 physicians, of whom almost 50,000 are family physicians, engaged in all aspects of Canada's health care and public health systems. Canada's experience with SARS in 2003 was a "wake-up call"; much changed in its aftermath. The creation of the Public Health Agency of Canada led by a chief public health officer and the Pan-Canadian Public Health Network increased Canada's ability to respond to a public health emergency like pH1N1. The Canadian Pandemic Influenza Plan for the Health Sector, as well as complementary provincial and territorial plans, provides a framework and approach to responding to a pandemic. In many ways, this planning paid off. Canada mobilized quickly in response to the pH1N1 threat. Morbidity and mortality were lower than feared, and 45% of the population was vaccinated. But this response can also be seen as a "dress rehearsal" for a more severe influenza pandemic or some other national public health emergency: a test of our plans and an opportunity to learn from experience, with the time to incorporate these lessons into our strategic planning. Those on the front lines of response understand how health emergencies test our entire system - public health, acute and primary care and the community-based family physician. The success of our response depends on planning and practice, the effectiveness of public health and clinical countermeasures, our health human resources, the surge capacity within our health care and public health systems and our ability to reach the public. One of our greatest challenges in Canada is also to establish a coherent national and provincial/territorial strategy that can be implemented at a local level. Although we believe that Canada's overall response to pH1N1 produced many success stories, there were circumstances that challenged us as health professionals. Both health care and public health need further strengthening, and their separate infrastructures and the interdependence between these structures need attention and bolstering. The following comments focus on two overarching areas that influenced our ability to respond to the pandemic: communications and health system integration. Communications Communication was a consistent source of concern. Channels of communication among the various levels of public health providers were stronger than those for primary care providers, especially family physicians. On 9 Aug. 2009, following the first wave of pH1N1, our leaders wrote to chief public health officer of Canada Dr. David Butler-Jones on behalf of our members to share their thoughts and recommendations on how to improve communications with physicians. Family physicians in particular, but also other front-line health care providers, needed communication that was tailored to the practice setting, resources that were easy to access, and clear messages written in a manner that allowed rapid implementation into clinical practice during health emergencies because the timing of clinical response was critical. We recommended that front-line clinical practitioners be involved in the development of guidelines and the strategies for their dissemination, so that the content could be linked directly to the clinical setting. Family physicians are part of our first line of defence during infectious disease outbreaks. To ensure optimum patient care, they need clinical guidance quickly. Many physicians felt that the urgent need to provide consistent, clinically relevant information was not well recognized by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), the Public Health Network and, in some cases, provincial, territorial, regional or local levels. It took three months after recognition of the emerging pandemic to publish Interim Guidance for Ambulatory Care of Influenza-like Illness in the Context of H1N1. The current Public Health Network process of federal/provincial/territorial (FPT) consultation and consensus building seemed ill-suited to the acute national need for clinical information on issues such as the use and prescription of anti-viral medications. As provincial authorities and professional medical organizations moved to fill the void, different approaches and recommendations arose independent from one another. Better integration of primary care response by a national organization such as PHAC and the provincial/territorial health ministries could address the needs of clinical practitioners in concert with public health responses. This would also ensure that care directives are translated into user-friendly formats appropriate to clinical settings. We were pleased to be able to work with PHAC in fall 2009 to produce Pandemic H1N1: Fast Facts for Front-line Clinicians. This resource was highly valued by many of our members, and the collaboration demonstrated how health organizations can work effectively with government to contribute their expertise to the development and distribution of appropriate, clinically relevant information. Nevertheless, our critics declared that it was too little, too late. In situations where scientific evidence is rapidly changing, the processes used to distribute information to both front-line public health and clinical professionals must be designed to avoid confusion. Coordinated, unified communication strategies are needed at the national, provincial/territorial and local levels. Regardless of the official source, the information must be consistent. During the pandemic, many physicians and public health workers complained that multiple levels of government provided similar, but not the same advice. The differences led to skepticism, and the inundation of messages led to overload. The bottom line is that clinically relevant and trustworthy information should be provided on a timely basis, even if levels of certainty are fluctuating. Jurisdictions with effective communication to the primary care sector were characterized by cooperation and consultation between the medical community and the provincial, territorial and regional health authorities, both before and during the crisis. We recommend: 1. That the Public Health Agency of Canada, with the provinces and territories, evaluate the effectiveness of pH1N1 communications between public health and physicians and other front-line primary health care providers, and use the finding of this evaluation to research options for future response to a public health crisis. 2. That federal, provincial/territorial public health authorities and health care professionals and their associations work together in the inter-pandemic period to develop a pan-Canadian communication strategy to be used during health emergencies. 3. The establishment of a pan-Canadian centre within the Public Health Agency of Canada - similar to the Centre for Effective Practice - to undertake timely knowledge translation of clinical management guidelines for clinicians during public health crises. Surveillance and electronic communications The national response to infectious disease would have been greatly facilitated if system-wide communicable disease surveillance had been in place to support the sharing of data between public health and the rest of the health care system, particularly at the regional and local levels of pandemic response. Clinicians' practices are highly influenced by illness patterns that develop regionally and locally within their practice populations; thus, surveillance data are useful in determining appropriate treatment. Real-time data were not available to most physicians and when data did become available, they were already several weeks old. Delayed clinical guidelines were not a suitable substitute for timely surveillance information. Expansion of the use of electronic medical records (EMRs) in primary care, with bi-directional links to public health electronic health records (EHRs), could have facilitated surveillance and communications. Family practice clinics with EMRs were able to quickly identify high-risk patients, communicate with them to schedule vaccination appointments and collect the required data for public health. The varied levels of success of public pH1N1 vaccination clinics were further proof of the need to move to standard use of EMRs and EHRs in the health system. Communications can be enhanced through the sharing of data between the public health and primary care systems. EMRs may help resolve the challenge of collecting data from primary care sites. Collaboration among the PHAC, the Canadian Medical Association and the Information Technology Association of Canada's Health Division led to development of a pilot project to demonstrate the use of primary care EMRs as real-time sentinel surveillance tools for public health action to supplement existing surveillance mechanisms. In addition, after a successful two-year pilot project, the College of Family Physicians of Canada is working with the PHAC, in association with the Canadian Institute for Health Information, to conduct surveillance for five chronic diseases using EMRs, local networks across Canada and a national central repository for standardized data. These studies represent the increasingly important role of electronic information in surveillance and the value of collaboration between public health and primary care. We recommend: 4. That the federal and provincial/territorial governments provide EMR funding to enable clinical care and public health authorities to build interconnectedness and allow real-time information collection and analysis. System issues FPT responsibilities The division of responsibility between federal and provincial/territorial authorities for health care and emergency response influences how we respond to public health emergencies. Provincial/territorial governments have a primary role to play in regulating health matters within their boundaries. At the same time, the federal government has responsibilities related to national public safety and health protection. There can be no disputing the legitimacy of federal involvement in public health matters of an interprovincial/territorial nature. Under International Health Regulations, the federal government also has a responsibility to report and monitor public health emergencies of potential harm to other countries. Since Canada's SARS experience, there has been much progress in building FPT cooperation and increasing consultation on public health matters. However, the division of responsibility has led us to a situation where public health and clinical guidance in each province and territory was similar, yet different. Although the Pandemic Influenza Committee and the Special FPT Advisory Committee on H1N1 Influenza strove for consensus at the national level, individual provinces and territories were under no obligation to implement the guidance agreed to at the FPT level. Consultative and collaborative processes at the FPT level created delays in decision-making and directly interfered with the capacity of front-line professionals to respond to the urgent health needs of their patients. This led to a sense of confusion in the media and a loss of trust among the public and health professionals regarding Canada's capacity to respond to pH1N1. System capacity Canada's health system lacks surge capacity and can be sorely tested during a public health emergency, such as the recent experience with pH1N1. The underdeveloped public health infrastructure also means that it is a challenge to handle more than one national crisis at a time. To mount a response to pH1N1, public health units pulled human resources from other programs and many critical ones were delayed, suspended or cancelled altogether. During the first wave of pH1N1, Manitoba experienced a severe outbreak that stretched the resources of its critical care infrastructure to its limits. Front-line health care providers were inundated with telephone calls from the worried well and an increase in visits from those with flu symptoms. If pH1N1 had been the severe pandemic that was expected and for which Canada had been preparing, our health system would have been brought to its knees. In 2008, the Canadian Coalition for Public Health in the 21st Century noted that Canada remains vulnerable to the risks presented by epidemics and pandemics. This vulnerability remains today, and a long-range plan to build our public health capacity and workforce and to address the lack of surge capacity in our health system must become a priority if we are to be prepared for the next emergency. We recommend: 5. That the federal government increase infrastructure funding to provinces/territories to assist local health emergency preparedness planning and response, to reduce variation across the country and to integrate clinical care structures into public health structures at the local level. 6. That the Public Health Agency of Canada review the recommendations of the 2003 report of the National Advisory Committee on SARS and Public Health (Naylor report) in light of the pH1N1 experience and develop a national action plan to address the persistent gaps. Public health/primary care partnership Family physicians, in particular, understand that primary health care happens at the local level. In fact, so does all public health. During times of public health crisis, it is crucial for public health and primary care to work together, each respecting, supporting and bolstering the efforts of the other. Strengthening local public health and primary care structures and the interface between them would have resulted in improved, shared understanding of each sector's roles and responsibilities during the pH1N1 epidemic, better communications, improved data sharing and, most important, better served populations. Public health measures are directed toward the mitigation of disease through surveillance, research and outbreak management activities, while physicians provide information, education and clinical treatment to their patients. A commitment from both sectors at the local and provincial levels - and the professionals within each sector - to work together in the inter-pandemic period to build on processes that allow sharing of perspectives and information is essential. It is crucial that local public health authorities receive financial resources to increase their ability to collaborate effectively with family physicians, specialist physicians and other front-line providers. A number of the challenges faced by front-line public health workers and front-line physicians during the pH1N1 outbreak could have been lessened if there had been stronger links within the health system. We recommend: 7. That the Public Health Agency of Canada develop a focus on improving the interrelationship between primary care and public health to support collaboration during public health crises. Vaccination A key measure to combat pandemic influenza is mass vaccination. On the whole, Canada mounted an effective campaign: 45% of Canadians were vaccinated, and the proportion was even higher in First Nations communities - a first in Canadian history. Canada was one of the first countries with sufficient vaccine for the population and, with one domestic vaccine supplier, Canada avoided the confusion of multiple formulations as seen in the United States. The outcome was positive, but many public health units were stretched as expectations exceeded the pre-existing constrained resources. Although we recognize that the provinces and territories have quite different approaches to the delivery of their routine immunization programs, there is agreement that the pandemic immunization process did not adequately engage physicians in planning and delivery. A number of difficulties, such as the impact of bulk packaging, manufacturing delays that affected the agreed "sequencing" of patients and the logistics of inventory management, led to friction between front-line public health practitioners and family physicians. These could have been avoided with strengthened interdependence and mutual understanding before this crisis. The great variation in mass vaccination programs between provinces/territories, and even between local public health units, led to public confusion. Recognition of the diversity of primary care settings in which physicians work and bilateral planning in advance of the event is essential, because it is simply not feasible to tailor responses to myriad settings in the heat of the moment. Television broadcasts of long lines of people waiting to be vaccinated contributed to a loss of confidence in the system at a time when public confidence was sorely needed to encourage vaccination. Nationally promulgated clinical practice guidelines had great potential to create consistent clinical responses across the country. Instead, the variation and lack of coordination in providing important clinical information during this crisis eroded the public's confidence in the federal, provincial and territorial response. Ensuring future consistency in clinical approaches will require examination of ethical principles for the allocation of resources, such as anti-virals, vaccines and hospital treatment. Public engagement in the discussion of ethical principles is essential and, as much as possible, the consultative process should be transparent and undertaken in advance. We recommend: 8. That the Public Health Network seek advanced pan-Canadian commitment to a harmonized and singular national response to clinical practice guidelines, including mass vaccination programs, during times of potential public health crisis. Conclusion In 2003, in its submission to the National Advisory Committee on SARS, the Canadian Medical Association noted that the uptake of new information is influenced by many qualitative factors, and that research is needed to determine how best to communicate with individual physicians and other health care providers in emergency situations. Communication processes should be based on sound research and build on existing communication networks and relationships. The College of Family Physicians of Canada has recommended that information networks be strengthened to promote the sharing of the most relevant information among family physicians, other primary care providers and public health at the local level. We believe that PHAC is well positioned to undertake research on how health professionals can best receive information and to catalogue existing communication networks to build them into a well-coordinated national emergency response communication system. We must work together to translate pandemic information into practical messages relevant to front-line providers and employ trusted channels to deliver key messages to our patients and the public. Broad consensus is developing that our experience with the pH1N1 outbreak has shown that one of our greatest needs in preparing for the next public health emergency is for a national communications strategy that involves all levels of government, targets all sectors of our health system and uses the channels with which these targets are most familiar. An effective response to infectious disease outbreaks depends on effective surveillance, data collection and sharing and tracking of clinical interventions. The absence of a national communicable disease/immunization monitoring system is an ongoing problem. In 2003, the report of the National Advisory Committee on SARS and Public Health recommended that "the [Public Health] Agency [of Canada] should facilitate the long term development of a comprehensive and national public health surveillance system that will collect, analyze, and disseminate laboratory and health care facility data on infectious diseases... to relevant stakeholders." In 2010, Canada still does not have a comprehensive national surveillance and epidemiological system. A pan-Canadian electronic health information system is urgently needed and must become a priority during the inter-pandemic phase, with adequate federal funding and provincial/territorial collaboration. Greater adoption of the EMR in primary care and better public health EHRs with the ability to link systems will augment existing surveillance capacity and should be considered essential to a pan-Canadian system. Many of the challenges front-line health practitioners faced during the pH1N1 were also challenges during the SARS outbreak in 2003. The Naylor report proposed a number of measures to improve Canada's readiness and strengthen public health. Although a great deal of work and effort has gone into building links with and between provinces/territories and the federal government within the public health and the health emergency management system, little has trickled down to the front lines. This is not to devalue the much-improved spirit of FPT cooperation and the important achievements that have been made. Rather it is to suggest that, as the roof is no longer leaking, it is time to focus attention on the foundation - the response at the local level. Embedding primary care expertise in public health planning within the PHAC and at provincial/territorial and local levels will help circumvent problems and improve the effectiveness of our health system to respond to public health emergencies. A dialogue between primary care and the emergency management structures will help the response team understand and value the capabilities within primary care and build them into their planning and response systems. At the end of the day, we need to nurture collaborative relations between public health and primary care. Our shared objective is protecting the health of Canadians, recognizing that, in reality, neither system can be successful in isolation. It is essential that we trust each other's professionalism and expertise and work together to ensure that a strong foundation is in place to protect Canadians from future health threats. We have the will and expertise. We need the resources and a firm commitment to move forward. We have had two "wake-up calls" - SARS and pH1N1. Let's not wait for a third to find that we are not yet prepared. Recommendations 1. That the Public Health Agency of Canada, with the provinces and territories, evaluate the effectiveness of pH1N1 communications between public health and physicians and other front-line primary health care providers, and use the finding of this evaluation to research options for future response to a public health crisis. 2. That federal, provincial/territorial public health authorities and health care professionals and their associations work together in the inter-pandemic period to develop a pan-Canadian communication strategy to be used during health emergencies. 3. The establishment of a pan-Canadian centre within the Public Health Agency of Canada - similar to the Centre for Effective Practice - to undertake timely knowledge translation of clinical management guidelines for clinicians during public health crises. 4. That the federal and provincial/territorial governments provide EMR funding to enable clinical care and public health authorities to build interconnectedness and allow real-time information collection and analysis. 5. That the federal government increase infrastructure funding to provinces/territories to assist local health emergency preparedness planning and response, to reduce variation across the country and to integrate clinical care structures into public health structures at the local level. 6. That the Public Health Agency of Canada review the recommendations of the 2003 report of the National Advisory Committee on SARS and Public Health (Naylor report) in light of the pH1N1 experience and develop a national action plan to address the persistent gaps. 7. That the Public Health Agency of Canada develop a focus on improving the interrelationship between primary care and public health to support collaboration during public health crises. 8. That the Public Health Network seek advanced pan-Canadian commitment to a harmonized and singular national response to clinical practice guidelines, including mass vaccination programs, during times of potential public health crisis.
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Climate Change and Human Health

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9809
Last Reviewed
2018-03-03
Date
2010-06-09
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
  1 document  
Policy Type
Policy document
Last Reviewed
2018-03-03
Date
2010-06-09
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Text
Climate Change and Human Health Background Climate change is increasingly recognized as a significant threat facing society and has the potential to be one of the greatest threats to human health in the 21st Century1. While the damage is being done now, many of the health effects may arise only decades in the future2. Possible impacts could include some or all of the following: * Increased mortality, disease and injuries from heat waves and other extreme weather events; * Continued change in the range of some infectious disease vectors (i.e. 260-320 million more cases of malaria predicted by 2080, with six billion more at risk for dengue fever); * Effects on food yields- increased malnutrition; * Increased flooding in some areas and increased droughts in others, along with other impacts on freshwater supply; * Increases in foodborne and waterborne illnesses; * Warming and rising sea levels adding to displacement and also impacting water supply through salination; * Impaired functioning of ecosystems; * Negative effects on air quality associated with ground level ozone, including increases in cardio-respiratory morbidity and mortality, asthma, and allergens; * Displacement of vulnerable populations (especially in coastal areas)1; and * Loss of livelihoods3. Most of the impacts of climate change will result from amplifying the existing health hazards found in populations4. How susceptible a population is to the effects of climate change is dependent on their existing vulnerabilities (i.e. disease burden, resources etc.) as well as their adaptive capacity5. The World Health Organization has projected that countries that have, and will likely continue to suffer the greatest effects, are those who have contributed the smallest amount to the causes of climate change.6 While the vast majority of climate change deaths will occur in developing countries with systemic vulnerabilities, a recent Health Canada report has noted that Canada is likely to experience higher rates of warming in this century than most other countries in the world. Climate change scenarios predict an increased risk of extreme weather and other climate events for all regions of Canada, with the exception of extreme cold7. Canadians most vulnerable to climate change include seniors, children and infants, socially disadvantaged individuals, and those with pre-existing medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease8. Those living in cities could be especially vulnerable due to the impact of the heat island effect. However, given their greater access to emergency, health, social, and financial resources, they might also have the greatest adaptive capacity9. The health consequences of climate change have the potential to be more severe in far northern regions. Populations in Canada's north including aboriginals have already begun to see differences in their hunting practices as a result of changing ice patterns10, and the melting of permanent snowpacks11. Changes in ice patterns have also led to increased injuries12. In some places in the North, climate changes have led to greater risks from avalanches, landslides and other hazards13. Further problems are related to the infrastructure in Northern Canada, with some communities already noticing degradation of structures due to the thawing of the permafrost14. Given that much of the Northern infrastructure is already in disrepair, this represents a considerable problem. Geographic isolation, and a lack of resources may further exacerbate the situation15. What CMA has done? Physicians have a critical role to play in advancing public understanding of the potential impact of climate change on health and promoting health protecting responses. The CMA has been working on the issue of climate change and human health for a number of years. CMA was supportive of Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, and urged the Government of Canada to commit to choosing a climate change strategy that satisfied Canada's international commitments while also maximizing the clean air co-benefits and smog-reduction potential of any greenhouse gas reduction initiatives. In 2007, a number of resolutions were passed at General Council calling on government to properly plan for the health impacts of climate change and put in place measures to mitigate the impact of climate change on vulnerable populations in Canada's north. In that same year, CMA and the Canadian Nurses Association updated a joint position statement first entered into in 1994 calling for environmentally responsible activity in the health-care sector. Most recently, the CMA has been an integral part of the drafting of the World Medical Association (WMA) policies on health and climate change. The WMA Declaration of Delhi on Health and Climate Change was adopted at its annual General Assembly in New Delhi, India in October 2009, The declaration calls for action in five main areas; advocacy to combat global warming; leadership-help people be healthy enough to adapt to climate change; education and capacity building; surveillance and research; and collaboration to prepare for climate emergencies. This policy is written to complement the WMA declaration. What needs to be done? Climate change may lead to significant impacts on human health. While it is unlikely that these outcomes can be avoided, there are some strategies that can be employed to help limit the negative consequences. Education and Capacity Building There is a need for greater public and health professional awareness and education about climate change in order to gain understanding of the health consequences and support for strategies to reduce green house gases and mitigate climate change effects. CMA recommends: 1. A national public awareness program on the importance of the environment and global climate change to personal health; 2. Encouraging health sciences schools to enhance their provision of educational programs on environmental health; and fostering the development of continuing education modules on environmental health and environmental health practices. Surveillance and Research There are important gaps in our knowledge on the health impacts of climate change as well as the effectiveness of various mitigation and adaptation strategies. Surveillance and reporting functions need to be strengthened to allow for greater accuracy in modeling of future impacts. CMA recommends: 3. That the federal government must address the gaps in research regarding climate change and health by undertaking studies to - quantify and model the burden of disease that will be caused by global climate change - identify the most vulnerable populations, the particular health impacts of climate change on vulnerable populations, and possible new protections for such populations; - increase the collection and accuracy of health data, particularly for vulnerable and underserved populations; - report diseases that emerge in conjunction with global climate change, and participate in field investigations, as with outbreaks of infectious diseases; and - develop and expand surveillance systems to include diseases caused by global climate change. Reducing the Burden of Disease to Mitigate Climate Change Impacts How susceptible a population is to the effects of climate change is dependent on their existing vulnerabilities. Therefore, work needs to be done to reduce the burden of diseases and improve upon the social determinants of health for vulnerable populations in Canada and globally. CMA recommends: 4. That the federal and provincial/territorial governments work together to improve the ability of the public to adapt to climate change and catastrophic weather events by - Encouraging behaviours that improve overall health, - Creating targeted programs designed to address specific exposures, - Providing health promotion information and education on self-management of the symptoms of climate-associated illness, - Ensuring physical infrastructure that allows for adaptation; 5. That the federal government develop concrete actions to reduce the health impact of climate-related emissions, in particular those initiatives which will also improve the general health of the population; 6. That the federal government support the Millennium Development Goals and support the principles outlined in the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health report; and Preparing for Climate Emergencies To deal with the future burden of climate change related health issues there is a need to ensure adequate health capacity and infrastructure. Rebuilding of public health capacity globally is seen as the most important, cost-effective, and urgently needed response to climate change16. Domestically, there is a need to ensure adequate surge capacity within the health care system to be prepared for an increase in illness related to climate change effects. There is also a need to strengthen not only the health systems, but the infrastructure (i.e. housing) for vulnerable populations including Aboriginals and those in the North. CMA recommends that the federal and provincial /territorial governments work together to: 7. Strengthen the public health system both domestically and internationally in order to improve the capacity of communities to adapt to climate change; 8. Ensure adequate surge capacity within Canada's health system to handle the increase in climate change related illness; 9. Ensure the health of vulnerable populations is adequate to handle climate change related situations; 10. Develop knowledge about the best ways to adapt to and mitigate the health effects of climate change; 11. Integrate health professionals into the emergency preparedness plans of government and public health authorities so that front-line providers are adequately informed and prepared to properly manage any health emergencies. Advocacy to Combat Climate Change Finally, there is a need to take action to reduce the damaging effects of climate change. The global community needs to come together to reduce the levels of green house gases being released in the atmosphere, and focus on safer more environmentally friendly energy sources. Investments in cuts to greenhouse gas emissions would greatly outweigh their costs, and could help to reduce the future burden of climate change related illness17. CMA recommends: 12. That the government of Canada become a global leader in promoting equitable, carbon neutral economic, industrial, and social policies, and practices that fight global warming and adopt specific green house gas reduction targets as determined by the evolving science of climate change. 13. That health care professionals act within their professional settings to reduce the environmental impact of medical activities and to develop environmentally sustainable professional settings; 14. That all Canadians act to minimize individual impacts on the environment, and encourage others to do so, as well. Conclusions The CMA believes that Canada must prepare now for the potential health threat that climate change poses to its population. While many of these effects will take decades to materialize, certain populations, such as those in Canada's north, or those in low lying coastal areas, are already starting to experience the impact of climate change. A focus on education and health promotion, as well as advocacy for improved public policy and primary health care resources will be a good start in dealing with this issue. Additionally, further research and data collection is necessary to improve our understanding of climate change and the effectiveness of adaptation and mitigation strategies. Finally, the global community needs to act together to address the health and environmental impacts of climate change. By working together, in an international response, strategies can be implemented to mitigate any negative health effects of climate change. Canada's physicians believe that: What is good for the environment is also good for human health. It is past time for those of us in the health sector in Canada to engage fully in the debate and discussions within our own house, as well as in the broader body politic to ensure that protecting human health is the bottom line of environmental and climate change strategies. Bibliography 1 Currently a third of the world's population lives within 60 miles of the shoreline and 13 of 20 biggest world cities located on the coast- more than a billion people could be displaced (Costello et.al., 2009) 1 Costello, Anthony et.al. "Managing the health effects of climate change.' The Lancet Volume 373 May 16, 2009. pp.1693-1733. 2 World Health Organization, World Meteorological Organization & United Nations Environment Programme (2003) Climate Change and Human Health- Risks and Responses, Summary. Available at: http://www.who.int/globalchange/climate/en/ccSCREEN.pdf 3 Confalonieri et.al., (2007) Human Health. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Available at: http://www1.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg2/ar4-wg2-chapter8.pdf ; Epstein, Paul R. "Climate Change and Human Health." The New England Journal of Medicine 353 (14) October 6, 2005.; Friel, Sharon; Marmot, Michael; McMichael, Anthony J.; Kjellstrom, Tord & Denny Vagero. "Global health equity and climate stabilization: a common agenda." The Lancet Volume 372 November 8, 2008. pp.1677-1683. 4Confalonieri et.al., (2007) Human Health. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Available at: http://www1.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg2/ar4-wg2-chapter8.pdf; World Health Organization (2009) Protecting Health From Climate Change: Global research priorities. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241598187_eng.pdf 5 Health Canada (2001) Climate Change and Health & Well-being: A Policy Primer Available at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/climat/policy_primer-abecedaire_en_matiere/index-eng.php 6 Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Corvalan, Carlos & Maria Neira "Global climate change: implications for international public health policy." Bulletin of the World Health Organization. March 2007, 85 (3) pp.235-237 7 Seguin, Jacinthe & Peter Berry (2008) "Human Health in a Changing Climate: A Canadian Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptive Capacity, Synthesis Report." Health Canada Available at: http://www.nbhub.org/hubfiles/pdf/HealthinChangingClimate_Synthesis_english_low.pdf 8 Health Canada (2002) Climate Change And Health & Well-Being: A Policy Primer for Canada's North. Available at: http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/H46-2-02-290E.pdf 9 Seguin, Jacinthe & Peter Berry (2008) "Human Health in a Changing Climate: A Canadian Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptive Capacity, Synthesis Report." Health Canada Available at: http://www.nbhub.org/hubfiles/pdf/HealthinChangingClimate_Synthesis_english_low.pdf 10 Ibid 11 Health Canada (2002) Climate Change And Health & Well-Being: A Policy Primer for Canada's North. Available at: http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/H46-2-02-290E.pdf 12 Epstein, Paul R. "Climate Change and Human Health." The New England Journal of Medicine 353 (14) October 6, 2005. 13 Seguin, Jacinthe & Peter Berry (2008) "Human Health in a Changing Climate: A Canadian Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptive Capacity, Synthesis Report." Health Canada Available at: http://www.nbhub.org/hubfiles/pdf/HealthinChangingClimate_Synthesis_english_low.pdf 14 Field, Christopher B. et.al. (2007) North America. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Available at: http://www1.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg2/ar4-wg2-chapter14.pdf 15 Health Canada (2002) Climate Change And Health & Well-Being: A Policy Primer for Canada's North. Available at: http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/H46-2-02-290E.pdf 16 World Health Organization, World Meteorological Organization & United Nations Environment Programme (2003) Climate Change and Human Health- Risks and Responses, Summary. Available at: http://www.who.int/globalchange/climate/en/ccSCREEN.pdf 17 Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Corvalan, Carlos & Maria Neira "Global climate change: implications for international public health policy." Bulletin of the World Health Organization. March 2007, 85 (3) pp.235-237
Documents
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Nutrition counseling

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy784
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
1975-06-25
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC75-19
That, recognizing the importance of comprehensive nutrition counselling services, the Canadian Medical Association urge that such services be made widely available within the framework of the health care system.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
1975-06-25
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC75-19
That, recognizing the importance of comprehensive nutrition counselling services, the Canadian Medical Association urge that such services be made widely available within the framework of the health care system.
Text
That, recognizing the importance of comprehensive nutrition counselling services, the Canadian Medical Association urge that such services be made widely available within the framework of the health care system.
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Noise pollution

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy787
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
1975-06-25
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC75-34
The Canadian Medical Association, recognizing that noise pollution is a significant and increasing health hazard in the work and home environments of most Canadians, calls on all levels of government to delineate, legislate, monitor and enforce laws on the question of noise.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
1975-06-25
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC75-34
The Canadian Medical Association, recognizing that noise pollution is a significant and increasing health hazard in the work and home environments of most Canadians, calls on all levels of government to delineate, legislate, monitor and enforce laws on the question of noise.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association, recognizing that noise pollution is a significant and increasing health hazard in the work and home environments of most Canadians, calls on all levels of government to delineate, legislate, monitor and enforce laws on the question of noise.
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Noise pollution and health

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy788
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
1975-06-25
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC75-35
That physicians make themselves more aware of the health hazards associated with noise and wherever possible take the necessary steps to reduce such hazards, particularly in their own working environments.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
1975-06-25
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC75-35
That physicians make themselves more aware of the health hazards associated with noise and wherever possible take the necessary steps to reduce such hazards, particularly in their own working environments.
Text
That physicians make themselves more aware of the health hazards associated with noise and wherever possible take the necessary steps to reduce such hazards, particularly in their own working environments.
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