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CMA PolicyBase

Policies that advocate for the medical profession and Canadians


475 records – page 2 of 48.

Access to long-term care

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9500
Last Reviewed
2016-05-20
Date
2009-08-19
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC09-19
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, affiliates and associates, will communicate to governments that insufficient access to long-term care at all ages is an obstacle to improving the health care system.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2016-05-20
Date
2009-08-19
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC09-19
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, affiliates and associates, will communicate to governments that insufficient access to long-term care at all ages is an obstacle to improving the health care system.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, affiliates and associates, will communicate to governments that insufficient access to long-term care at all ages is an obstacle to improving the health care system.
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Access to medical information

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9280
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Ethics and medical professionalism
Health information and e-health
Resolution
GC08-113
The Canadian Medical Association objects to the current practice of insurers, employers and other third parties requesting and gaining access to unlimited medical information obtained as a result of patients signing forms that grant unrestricted 'consent for release of medical information' when claiming eligibility for disability benefits.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2008-08-20
Topics
Ethics and medical professionalism
Health information and e-health
Resolution
GC08-113
The Canadian Medical Association objects to the current practice of insurers, employers and other third parties requesting and gaining access to unlimited medical information obtained as a result of patients signing forms that grant unrestricted 'consent for release of medical information' when claiming eligibility for disability benefits.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association objects to the current practice of insurers, employers and other third parties requesting and gaining access to unlimited medical information obtained as a result of patients signing forms that grant unrestricted 'consent for release of medical information' when claiming eligibility for disability benefits.
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Access to public long-term care homes

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy11906
Date
2016-08-24
Topics
Health systems, system funding and performance
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC16-35
The Canadian Medical Association will raise the federal government’s awareness of the inequitable access to public long-term care homes that is experienced by patients with financial, cultural and/or linguistic barriers.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Date
2016-08-24
Topics
Health systems, system funding and performance
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC16-35
The Canadian Medical Association will raise the federal government’s awareness of the inequitable access to public long-term care homes that is experienced by patients with financial, cultural and/or linguistic barriers.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association will raise the federal government’s awareness of the inequitable access to public long-term care homes that is experienced by patients with financial, cultural and/or linguistic barriers.
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Access to quality health care

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy323
Last Reviewed
2019-03-03
Date
1998-09-09
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC98-23
That access to quality health care must be available to all Canadians, in a manner consistent with provincial/territorial human rights legislation and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2019-03-03
Date
1998-09-09
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC98-23
That access to quality health care must be available to all Canadians, in a manner consistent with provincial/territorial human rights legislation and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Text
That access to quality health care must be available to all Canadians, in a manner consistent with provincial/territorial human rights legislation and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
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Access to results of government-funded research

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy10863
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2013-08-21
Topics
Health information and e-health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC13-64
The Canadian Medical Association supports timely public access and transparency to the results of and information from government-funded research.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2013-08-21
Topics
Health information and e-health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC13-64
The Canadian Medical Association supports timely public access and transparency to the results of and information from government-funded research.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association supports timely public access and transparency to the results of and information from government-funded research.
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Access to safe and nutritious food for children in northern communities

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy8877
Last Reviewed
2014-03-01
Date
2007-08-22
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC07-66
The Canadian Medical Association calls on the federal government to promote access to safe and nutritious food for children in northern communities affected by disruptions in traditional food-acquisition methods and a shift to a more processed low-nutrient diet.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2014-03-01
Date
2007-08-22
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC07-66
The Canadian Medical Association calls on the federal government to promote access to safe and nutritious food for children in northern communities affected by disruptions in traditional food-acquisition methods and a shift to a more processed low-nutrient diet.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association calls on the federal government to promote access to safe and nutritious food for children in northern communities affected by disruptions in traditional food-acquisition methods and a shift to a more processed low-nutrient diet.
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Access to the same effective and appropriate care for all Canadians

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy11661
Date
2015-08-26
Topics
Health systems, system funding and performance
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC15-82
The Canadian Medical Association recommends patient populations that fall under federal jurisdiction should have access to the same effective and appropriate care as all other Canadians.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Date
2015-08-26
Topics
Health systems, system funding and performance
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Resolution
GC15-82
The Canadian Medical Association recommends patient populations that fall under federal jurisdiction should have access to the same effective and appropriate care as all other Canadians.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association recommends patient populations that fall under federal jurisdiction should have access to the same effective and appropriate care as all other Canadians.
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Accredited standards for the management of life-limiting chronic disease

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy11636
Date
2015-08-26
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Ethics and medical professionalism
Resolution
GC15-38
The Canadian Medical Association supports the development and application of accredited standards for the integration of a palliative care approach into the management of life-limiting chronic disease.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Date
2015-08-26
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Ethics and medical professionalism
Resolution
GC15-38
The Canadian Medical Association supports the development and application of accredited standards for the integration of a palliative care approach into the management of life-limiting chronic disease.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association supports the development and application of accredited standards for the integration of a palliative care approach into the management of life-limiting chronic disease.
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Acting on today's and tomorrow's health care needs: Prebudget submission to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy14123
Date
2019-08-02
Topics
Health systems, system funding and performance
Population health/ health equity/ public health
  1 document  
Policy Type
Parliamentary submission
Date
2019-08-02
Topics
Health systems, system funding and performance
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Text
The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) is pleased to provide the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance this pre-budget submission. It provides recommendations to address major pan-Canadian challenges to the health of Canadians: improve how we provide care to our growing elderly population; improve access to primary care across the country; increase digital health literacy to take advantage of the benefits of new health information technologies; and better prepare for and mitigate the health impacts of a changing climate on Canadians. Seniors Care Health systems across the country are currently struggling to meet the needs of our aging population. People aged 85 years and over—many of whom are frail—make up the fastest growing age group in Canadai. Provincial and territorial health care systems (as well as care systems for populations falling under federal jurisdiction) are facing many challenges to meet the needs of an aging population. Canadians support a strong role for the federal government in leading a national seniors strategy and working with the provinces to ensure that all Canadians have the same level of access and quality of services, no matter where they live. The 2017 federal/provincial/territorial funding agreement involving $6 billion over 10 years to improve access to home care services is a welcomed building block. But without greater investment in seniors care, health systems will not keep up. To be truly relevant and effectively respond to Canadians’ present and future needs, our health care system must provide integrated, continuing care able to meet the chronic and complex care needs of our growing and aging population. This includes recognizing the increased role for patients and their caregivers in the care process. The federal government must ensure transfers are able to keep up with the real cost of health care. Current funding levels clearly fail to do so. Health transfers are estimated to rise by 3.6% while health care costs are expected to rise by 5.1% annually over the next decade.ii Recommendation: The federal government ensure provincial and territorial health care systems meet the care needs of their aging populations by means of a demographic top-up to the Canada Health Transfer.iii Providing care often comes with a financial cost such as lost income due to the caregiver’s withdrawal from the workforce to provide care. There are also increasing out-of-pocket costs for both caregivers and care receivers for health care-related expenses—privately covered expenditures on home and long-term care for seniors are projected to grow by an average of 5.8 per cent annually—nearly 1.5 times the pace of household disposable income growth. While the federal government offers tax credits that can be claimed by care receivers/caregivers, they are significantly under-utilized. While representing a significant proportion of caregivers, those with low or no income receive little to no federal government support through these programs. Middle-income earners also receive less than those earning high incomes. 4 Recommendation: The federal government create a Seniors Care Benefit that would be an easier, fairer and more effective way to support caregivers and care receivers alike.iv Access to Care Since the mid-1990s, the federal and provincial/territorial governments (FPT) have provided sustained leadership in promoting and supporting the transformation of primary care in Canada. In 2000, the First Ministers concluded the first of three Health Accords in which they agreed to promote the establishment of primary health care teamsv supported by a $800 million Primary Health Care Transition Fund (PHCTF) funded by the federal government, but jointly governed. The PHCTF resulted in large-scale sustained change in primary care delivery models in Ontario, Quebec and Alberta with interest in other jurisdictions as well. However, the job is far from finished. Across Canada, access to primary care is challenging for many Canadians with a persistent shortage of family physicians. In 2017, 4.7 million Canadians aged 12+ reported they did not have a regular health care provider.vi Even those who have a regular provider experience wait time issues. There has been widespread interest in primary care models since the development of the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s (CFPC) vision document Family Practice: The Patient’s Medical Home (PMH), initially launched in 2011vii and recently re-launched.viii The model is founded on 10 pillars depicted in Figure 1. Figure 1. The Patient’s Medical Home, 2019 The updated model places increased emphasis on team-based care and introduces the concept of the patient’s medical neighborhood that sets out connections between the primacy care practice and all delivery points in the surrounding community. While comprehensive baseline data are lacking, it seems 5 safe to conjecture that most Canadians are not enrolled in a primary care model that would measure up to the model’s 10 pillars. Recommendation: The federal government, in concert with provinces and territories, establish a targeted fund in the amount of $1.2 billion to support a new time-limited Primary Health Care Transition Fund that would build on the success of the fund launched in 2000 with the goal of widely introducing a sustainable medical home model across jurisdictions. This would include the following key elements:
Age-sex-weighted per capita allocation across the provinces and territories;
Joint governance of the FPT governments with meaningful stakeholder engagement;
Respect for the Canada Health Act principles;
Common objectives (e.g., modeled on the CFPC Patient’s Medical Home framework);
Operating Principles specifying eligible/ineligible activities;
Reporting provisions and agreed-upon metrics; and
Sustainability plans. Digital/Virtual Care Canada and most industrialized countries will experience a digital health revolution over the next decade with great potential to improve patient and population health. Digital health can be described as the integration of the electronic collection and compilation of health data, decision support tools and analytics with the use of audio, video and other technologies to deliver preventive, diagnostic and treatment services that promote patient and population health. While most Canadian physicians’ offices and health care facilities are now using some form of electronic record keeping and most households have internet access, there remains a large deficit in using virtual care, both within jurisdictions and across provincial/territorial boundaries. Recently the CMA, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the College of Family Physicians of Canada established a Virtual Care Task Force to identify opportunities for digital health to improve health care delivery, including what regulatory changes are required for physicians to deliver care to patients within and across provincial/territorial boundaries. To take full advantage of digital health capabilities it will be essential for the population to have a functional level of digital health literacy: the ability to seek, find, understand and appraise health information from electronic sources and apply the knowledge gained to addressing or solving a health problem.ix This also includes the capability of communicating about one’s health to health care professionals (e.g., e-consults), self-monitoring health (e.g., patient portals) and receiving treatment online (e.g., Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy).x There are no current data available on health literacy in Canada, let alone digital health literacy. One basic barrier to achieving digital health literacy is access to, and usage of the Internet, which has been termed the “digital divide” (e.g., older Canadians and low income households are less likely to have Internet access).Error! Bookmark not defined. 6 In 2001 the federal government established the Financial Consumer Agency of Canada (FCAC). Its mandate includes informing consumers about their rights and responsibilities in dealing with financial institutions and providing information and tools to help consumers understand and shop for financial products and services.xi In 2014 the FCAC appointed a Financial Literacy Leader who has focused on financial literacy, including activities such as conducting financial capability surveys and the development of a National Strategy for Financial Literacy.xii Considering the anticipated growth of digital/virtual care it would be desirable to understand and promote digital health literacy across Canada. What the federal government has done for financial literacy could serve as a template for digital health literacy. Recommendation: The federal government establish a Digital Health Literacy Secretariat to:
Develop indicators and conducting surveys to measure and track the digital health literacy of Canadians;
Develop tools that can be used both by Canadians and their health care providers to enhance their digital health literacy; and
Assess and make recommendations on the “digital divide” that may exist among some population sub-groups due to a lack of access to information technology and lower digital health literacy. Climate Change and Health Climate change is the public health imperative of our time. There is a high level of concern among Canadians about their changing climate. A 2017 poll commissioned by Health Canada demonstrates a high level of concern among Canadians about their changing climate: 79% were convinced that climate change is happening, and of these, 53% accepted that it is a current health risk, with 40% believing it will be a health risk in the future. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified air pollution and climate change as one of the biggest threats to global health. Health care professionals see first-hand the devastating health impacts of our changing climate including increased deaths from fine particulate matter air pollution and increased heat-related conditions. Impacts are most common in vulnerable populations such as adults over 65 years, the homeless, urban dwellers and people with a pre-existing disease. Canada’s health care system is already treating the health effects of climate change. A lack of progress in reducing emissions and building adaptive capacity threatens both human lives and the viability of Canada’s health system, with the potential to disrupt core public health infrastructure and overwhelm health services, not to mention the economic and social costs. The federal government must provide leadership to deal with the impact already being felt in Canada and around the world. Recommendation: 7 The federal government make strong commitments to minimize the impact of climate change on the health of Canadians by:
Ensuring pan-Canadian and inter-jurisdictional coordination to standardize surveillance and reporting of climate-related health impacts such as heat-related deaths, develop knowledge translation strategies to inform the public, and generate clinical and public health response plans that minimize the health impacts;
Increasing funding for research on the mental health impacts of climate change and psychosocial adaptation opportunities; and
Ensuring funding is provided to the health sector to prepare for climate change impacts through efforts to increase resiliency (i.e., risk assessments, readiness to manage disease outbreaks, sustainable practice). 8 i Statistics Canada. The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on the State of Public Health in Canada, 2014: Public Health in the Future. Ottawa: Statistics Canada; 2015. Available: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cphorsphc-respcacsp/2014/chang-eng.php; (accessed 2016 Sep 19). ii The Conference Board of Canada. Meeting the care needs of Canada’s aging population. Ottawa: The Conference Board; 2018. iii Canadian Medical Association. Meeting the demographic challenge: Investments in seniors care. Pre-budget submission to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance. August 3, 2018. https://policybase.cma.ca/documents/Briefpdf/BR2018-16.pdf iv The Conference Board of Canada. Measures to Better Support Seniors and Their Caregivers. March 2019. https://www.cma.ca/sites/default/files/pdf/health-advocacy/Measures-to-better-support-seniors-and-their-caregivers-e.pdf v Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat. News release – First Ministers’ meeting communiqué on health. September 11, 2000. http://www.scics.ca/en/product-produit/news-release-first-ministers-meeting-communique-on-health/. Accessed 04/22/19. vi Statistics Canada. Primary health care providers, 2017. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/82-625-x/2019001/article/00001-eng.pdf?st=NGPiUkM5. Accessed 04/21/19. vii College of Family Physicians of Canada. A vision for Canada. Family Practice: the patient’s medical home. http://www.cfpc.ca/uploadedFiles/Resources/Resource_Items/PMH_A_Vision_for_Canada.pdf. Accessed 04/22/19. viii College of Family Physicians of Canada. The patient’s medical home 2019. https://patientsmedicalhome.ca/files/uploads/PMH_VISION2019_ENG_WEB_2.pdf. Accessed 04/21/19. ix Norman C, Skinner H. eHealth literacy: essential skills for consumer health in a networked world. J Med Internet Res 2006;8(2):e9. Doi:10.2196/jmir.8.2.e9. x Van der Vaart R, Drossaert C. Development of the digital health literacy instrument: measuring a broad spectrum of health 1.0 and health 2.0 skills. J Med Internet Res. 2017;19(1):e27. Doi:10.2196/jmir.6709. xi Financial Consumer Agency of Canada. About FCAC. xii Financial Consumer Agency of Canada. National Strategy for Financial Literacy. Phase 1: strengthening seniors’ financial literacy. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/canada/financial-consumer-agency/migration/eng/financialliteracy/financialliteracycanada/documents/seniorsstrategyen.pdf. Accessed 06/24/19. https://www.canada.ca/en/financial-consumer-agency/corporate/about.html. Accessed 07/01/19.
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Active Transportation

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9483
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2009-05-31
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
  1 document  
Policy Type
Policy document
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2009-05-31
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Text
The major diseases affecting the quality and quantity of life of Canadians, which include obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, depression and cancer, are all linked to physical inactivity. In Canada, 69% of women and 68% of men in Canada are considered physically inactive.(1) The cost of this inactivity and obesity was estimated at $4.3 billion in 2001.(2) A 10% increase in physical activity could potentially reduce direct health care expenditures by $150 million a year. This does not include indirect costs such as lost productivity due to illness, premature death or a range of other factors, including mental illness and poor quality of life.(3) Thus far, efforts to increase physical activity by changing the behaviour of individuals have had limited success. One reason is that many people have difficulty sustaining behaviours that involve additional time commitments. That is one reason for the increasing emphasis being placed on active transportation, which is any human-powered form of transportation, such as walking and cycling. Walking and cycling can be efficient alternatives to automobile travel. Cycling is usually the fastest mode of travel door to door for distances under five km, and for up to 10 km in city cores. Walking is simpler and nearly as fast for distances up to two km. When travel times are similar for active and motorized transportation, physical activity is gained with no net time lost, and at much lower cost. The cost of operating a motor vehicle is typically $10,000 per year,(4) while operating costs for a bicycle are much lower. Communities that have sidewalks, enjoyable scenery, street lights and nearby stores have improved levels of active transportation and physical activity. However, in recent decades communities have often been designed around the automobile. Street design, parking space, sidewalks and distance to retail destinations have all been planned assuming motorized transportation, and this often makes it difficult to move around communities by walking or cycling. Although individual decision-making remains important in any strategy for increasing active transportation, there is an essential role for communities and governments to play. Major improvements in the health of Canadians in the past 200 years have been due to improved sanitation, access to clean water and injury prevention. The role of individual decision-making in effecting these changes is dwarfed by the impact of the public health measures and infrastructure involved. Just as potable tap water is a health issue, so are decisions about land use, transportation policy and infrastructure. Community design is a major determinant of whether people use active transportation, whether they are physically active and whether they are obese. Canadians need communities that make it easy to be physically active in their daily living. Communities can create an environment in which the physically active choice is the easy choice. They can do this via sidewalks, trails, bicycle lanes and bicycle paths, and by providing pedestrian-friendly intersections, parks and green spaces, and safe bicycle parking spaces. They can also arrange zoning so that retail destinations are within walking or cycling distance of residential areas. This process also includes dedicating a sufficient portion of their street maintenance budget (including snow clearing) to maintaining active transportation routes as well as routes for motorized vehicles. It may include redesigning intersections, giving up vehicle lanes or parking spaces, or increasing the price of parking. Additional benefits to designing communities for pedestrians and cyclists. * a stronger sense of community with greater civic involvement by citizens * increased property values and retail activity * less noise pollution * lower crime rates * less smog and other air pollution * less greenhouse gas production * decreased risk of injury to pedestrians and cyclists * decreased costs of roadway and parking construction. A role for everyone Other sectors can support communities in making active transportation choices easy choices: * Businesses can create a work environment friendly to active transportation, including a corporate culture friendly to physical activity. They can incorporate active transportation planning into building design and create an environment friendly to physical activity. These steps could include making bicycle parking, showers and lockers available, and providing stairs that are pleasant and easier to access than elevators. They can also incorporate a culture of physical activity in decisions about where and how to hold meetings, and what people are allowed to wear to work. * School boards can develop policies to promote active transportation to and from school. These include building and maintaining secure bicycle parking, ensuring safe walking routes within communities, and assisting parents in walking their children to school. * Citizens can use active transportation themselves and treat with respect those who are already making active transportation choices. They can also lobby governments to make their community safer and easier places for cycling and walking. * Physicians can encourage patients to use active transportation as a way to boost their physical activity levels and improving their health. They can also lead by example and use active transportation themselves. Recommendations The CMA recommends that all sectors (government, business and the public) work together, as a matter of priority, to create a culture in their communities that supports and encourages active transportation. The CMA urges governments to: * Commit to long-term plans for active transportation networks that are in keeping with these goals and that include specific benchmarks to measure progress. * Require that active transportation be part of all infrastructure renewal projects, with investment in active transportation vs. motorized transportation in proportion to targeted active transportation use. (Some cities have achieved active transportation rates of up to 15%.) * Develop an awareness campaign to help Canadians to recognize the value of active transportation in their communities. * Require public health impact assessments for all land-use and transportation decisions, including the impact on the chemical environment and on physical activity. * Assess the impact that changes in the "built" environment can have on public health, and which interventions are most safe and effective. 1 Tremblay MS, Katzmarzyk PT, Willms JD. Temporal trends in overweight and obesity in Canada, 1981-1996. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26(4):538-43. 2 Katzmarzyk PT, Janssen I. The economic costs associated with physical inactivity and obesity in Canada: an update. Can J App Phys 2004;29(1):104. 3 Katzmarzyk PT, Gledhill N, Shephard RJ. The economic burden of physical inactivity in Canada. CMAJ 2000;163(11): 1435-40. 4 Canadian Automobile Association. Driving Costs: 2005 Edition. Available: www.carpool.ca/pdf/CAA-driving-costs-05.pdf (accessed 2007 Feb. 2).
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475 records – page 2 of 48.