On behalf of the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) I would like to respond to Health Canada’s papers, released on October 7, 2005, “Developing a Drug Supply Network and an Export Restriction Scheme” and “Requiring a Patient-Practitioner Relationship as a Condition of Sale of Prescription Drugs in Canada,” which invite discussion on the Minister of Health’s June 29, 2005 proposals to control cross-border pharmacy and ensure that Canadians have a continued supply of prescription drugs.
The CMA agrees that Canadians must have a supply of drugs adequate to meet their needs. Currently the most serious threat to this supply appears to be the legislative proposals, currently before the United States Congress, that would allow Americans to purchase Canadian drugs in bulk. Proactive measures to protect our drug supplies are warranted to guard against this threat.
In summary, our response to the Minister’s three proposals is as follows:
* Supply monitoring network: We support supply monitoring as a necessary activity.
* Export restrictions: We believe that all Canadian drugs should be subject to export restriction, and the Government of Canada should grant itself the power to enact bans on export as needed.
* Requiring a patient-physician relationship: We do not believe this proposal can be enforced, or that it will contribute materially to securing an adequate drug supply for Canada. We recommend that Health Canada instead support the activities of medical and pharmacy regulatory authorities in ensuring that prescribing behaviour is appropriate.
Our detailed comments on the proposals are below.
1) Drug supply monitoring system
The CMA strongly supports the development of a comprehensive strategy and an adequately resourced system for monitoring domestic drug supply. Canada needs such a system to identify shortages and respond quickly to remedy them, and to ensure that policy and regulatory decisions are founded on accurate and reliable knowledge. We recommend that more careful consideration be given to the most effective design and functioning for a supply-monitoring network. It is our understanding that manufacturers and distributors currently monitor supply of their own products. Ideally, a mechanism should be found to unite these individual activities into a robust and effective network without creating a costly parallel effort. Specific comments follow:
* 2.1 Gathering Drug Shortage Information: Voluntary reporting is a preferred approach. In designing a voluntary scheme, it should be taken into account that soliciting reports from a wide variety of players, including the public, may result in a flood of anecdotal, poorly documented reports that will require expert analysis to verify and put into context. Regardless of who is solicited for shortage reports, the reporting process should be made as clear, simple and user-friendly as possible, and all stakeholders who might be in a position to make reports should be made aware of its existence.
* 2.2 Assessment and Verification: We agree that a baseline of drug inventory data is required, as are benchmarks for what constitutes an appropriate drug supply for Canada. These should be established as a first step, before the implementation of a voluntary reporting scheme.
* 2.3 Communication of Information: While physicians may seldom be in a position to report drug shortages, it is essential that they be informed at once when a shortage exists, and how long it is expected to last. Guidance for physicians on measures they might take while the shortage lasts (for example, other drugs they might prescribe as substitutes) is highly desirable. Medical associations could help Health Canada communicate this information to their members.
The paper makes reference to Health Canada’s preference for collaboration in this endeavour “without assuming responsibility for becoming the primary source of information for Canadians on drug shortages or for resolving all reported drug shortages.” This is not appropriate. Leadership responsibilities and public expectations preclude the Minister from shirking responsibility for these functions. Accountability for such a complex network must be vested in one authority, i.e. Health Canada.
* 2.4 Response measures: Though the paper lists response capacity as an element of drug supply monitoring, it does not contain practical suggestions for responding in the event of a shortage. This is a crucial element and needs to be developed. There is no point in monitoring supply without a plan for managing shortages.
2) Export Restriction
CMA supports this proposal. The power to restrict export of drugs offers Canada its best chance of protection should the U.S. legalize bulk purchasing. This power should be strong and far-reaching. Serious consideration should be given to the June 2005 motion from the House Standing Committee on Health motion to ban all bulk exports of prescription drugs. Specific comments follow:
* 3.4.2 Drug products deemed necessary for human health: The discussion paper proposes to restrict export only under certain circumstances, e.g. if the drug is deemed necessary to human health, and to establish criteria to determine whether a drug meets this condition. All prescription drugs are necessary for human health; certainly those who are taking them consider them so. For equity’s sake - and also because establishing and abiding by criteria may prove impossible - we believe every prescription drug in Canada should be considered a candidate for export restriction.
* 3.4.3 Implications for patient care: We acknowledge that in many cases, other effective therapies can be substituted for drugs in short supply. Many physicians will make these substitutions as needed; but they must first be made aware of the shortages. Physicians must be advised of available alternatives if an unavoidable shortage exists; however, we caution that the existence of alternatives should not be used as justification for not taking action if a drug is in shortage. The final decision as to the most appropriate available therapy should remain a matter to be determined by the patient and physician and consultation.
3) Requiring a Patient-Practitioner Relationship
The Minister has expressed his desire to ensure that physicians maintain high ethical and professional prescribing standards. The CMA shares this desire. As discussed in the attached CMA Statement on Internet Prescribing (Appendix I), we hold that prescriptions should be written in the context of an appropriate patient-physician relationship. However, we do not accept that the proposed option of requiring an established patient-practitioner relationship for every prescription issued in Canada will have a meaningful effect on ensuring adequate drug supply, for the following reasons:
* The proposal does not target the real problem. Most current drug shortages are caused by raw material shortages, inventory management disruptions, unexpected spikes in demand, and other conditions that have nothing to do with the clinical encounter. More important, targeting the patient-practitioner relationship will not protect Canadians from the impact of U.S. bulk purchasing should legislation pass Congress.
* Prescribing outside the context of the patient-physician relationship is already subject to sanction by medical regulatory authorities. The vast majorities of Canada’s physicians conduct themselves ethically and only prescribe for patients in the context of a professional relationship. Those who do not, contravene both the CMA’s policy and the standards of practice for provincial/territorial regulatory Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons. These regulatory authorities, and the long and effective tradition of professional self-regulation they represent, should be respected and supported.
* The proposal is burdensome and will be difficult to enforce. The proposal places the onus for evaluating the patient-practitioner relationship on pharmacists. While pharmacists are required, as part of their professional responsibility, to ensure that a prescription has been written by a physician licensed to practice in that jurisdiction, they are not customarily familiar with the details of the interaction leading up to the prescription. Requiring them to formally screen for this will impose a heavy administrative burden, and will compromise patient confidentiality.
In addition, compliance monitoring by Health Canada will be complex, if feasible at all. For example, despite the Minister’s recent comment that prescriptions “can only be signed by a medical practitioner who actually sees and treats the patient in question”, it is generally accepted that perfectly legitimate prescribing can take place without a face-to-face encounter (e.g. through telemedicine) or an “ongoing” patient-physician relationship (e.g. in an emergency). While it is easy to detect flagrant infractions (such as a hundred prescriptions a day written for American patients by the same Canadian doctor) it will be much harder to precisely identify the boundary between what is legitimate prescribing behaviour and what is not. Many provincial regulatory authorities have already developed definitions of the patient-physician relationship, which Health Canada includes in the discussion document. It is unlikely that Health Canada will be able to improve on them.
* Determining an appropriate relationship may be more appropriately a provincial or territorial responsibility. The patient-physician interaction, like other scope-of-practice issues, is regulated at the provincial level. We do not believe the cross-border prescribing problem justifies Health Canada’s overarching federal-level intervention.
In conclusion, we support further exploration of the supply-monitoring and export-restriction options, and believe that existing medical and pharmaceutical regulatory authorities should be respected and supported in enforcing appropriate prescribing behaviour.
We appreciate the opportunity to comment on your proposals. We look forward to further opportunities for input during the development of legislation.
Briane Scharfstein, MD, CCFP, MBA
Associate Secretary General, Professional Affairs
cc: Ms. Meena Ballantyne, Director General, Health Care Strategies and Policy Directorate,
CMA Provincial/Territorial Divisional CEO’s
The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) is pleased to provide this brief in response to Health Canada's consultation on the proposed regulatory amendments to the Narcotic Control Regulations and the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, published in the Canada Gazette Part I, on June 14, 2014.
The CMA has already made its position on the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations known to Health Canada (see Appendix A). While recognizing the needs of those suffering from terminal illness or chronic disease, and for whom marijuana may provide relief, the CMA has raised significant concerns and objections to the regulatory framework since it was first proposed in 2001. Put simply, the CMA has significant and grave concerns with the regulatory framework governing medical marijuana. Of particular concern to physicians is the scarcity of evidence- based information about the use of marijuana as medical therapy, including on dosage, risks and benefits, and contraindications.
While several amendments to the regulatory framework have been promulgated since its initial establishment, the CMA's primary concerns have yet to be addressed. In brief, as the CMA's position on the regulatory framework is detailed in Appendix A, the CMA opposes the approach placing physicians in the role of gatekeepers for a product whose medical benefits have not been sufficiently researched. The CMA continues to recommend that marijuana for medical purposes be held to the same standards as prescription pharmaceutics, including the clinical trial process required for therapeutic products under the Food and Drugs Act and be subject to the same safety and efficacy standards as pharmaceuticals if used for medical purposes.
There remain fundamental concerns about quality, safety and efficacy of marijuana used for medical purposes, and the Canadian Medical Protective Association has advised physicians who are uncomfortable with the regulations to refrain from authorizing marijuana to their patients due to potential liability. The CMA advocates for education and licensing programs, clinical guidance and practice supports for health care practitioners who decide to authorize the use of marijuana for patients.
The CMA recommends that Health Canada further revise the proposed amendments to the
Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations to:
1) Enable consistent and best practice oversight
In the CMA's submission to Health Canada as part of its review of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, as well as in parliamentary briefs on the prescription pharmaceutical regulatory
framework, the CMA has recommended high regulatory standards for prescription medication; and even more stringent requirements for controlled substances, both during the approval and the post-approval phases. These recommendations are driven by the potential for harm to patients and the possibility for misuse or abuse of medications, particularly opioids and other such substances.
For these reasons, the CMA advocates for an inter-operable, pan-Canadian system of real-time prescription monitoring and surveillance for controlled substances. Robust monitoring and surveillance programs facilitate professional regulatory bodies' oversight and intervention, by enabling the identification of prescribing outliers which include fraudulent attempts to access controlled medications. Prescription monitoring programs also gather information to improve the understanding of prescription drug abuse and to support the development and adoption of best practices. In order to be streamlined and optimized, such a system should be compatible with existing electronic medical and pharmacy record systems and with provincial pharmaceutical databases, and accessible as a point-of-care tool for health care practitioners.
Currently, marijuana for medical purposes is exempt from the regulatory requirements of the Food and Drugs Regulations that apply to prescription pharmaceuticals in Canada. Under the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations there is no system in place to monitor the authorization of marijuana for medical purposes.
It is in this context that CMA supports the underlying principle of the proposed amendment to the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations which requires licensed producers to provide information to the provincial professional licensing authorities for health practitioners regarding authorizations for marijuana for medical purposes in response to a request by the licensing authority.
However, aligned with the CMA's support of a pan-Canadian prescription monitoring system, the CMA recommends that the provision of relevant information to licensing authorities should be part of required regular reporting procedures for the licensed producers, consistent with the prescription monitoring program requirements of the respective provincial and territorial jurisdictions.
Finally, the CMA recommends that Health Canada support the integration marijuana for medical purposes within provincial/territorial prescription monitoring programs, including facilitating the availability of a point-of-care access tool for health care practitioners.
2) Safeguard protection of privacy
As articulated in the CMA's Code of Ethics, physicians consider protecting the privacy of patient information to be paramount, and as such, the CMA has developed policy guidance concerning patient as well as physician information. The CMA's Principles for the Protection of Patients' Personal Health Information (see Appendix B) emphasizes that privacy, confidentiality and trust are cornerstones of the patient-physician relationship. Recognizing that health information is highly sensitive, this policy statement articulates foundational privacy principles that must be adhered to with respect to patient information.
In addition to the provision of patient information, authorizations include physician information. The CMA's Principles Concerning Physician Information (see Appendix C) specify 11 conditions that must be met including with respect to the collection, use, access, storage and disclosure of physician information.
The CMA recommends that the proposed amendments to the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations be reviewed and revised as necessary to ensure it meets the standards of the CMA's Principles for the Protection of Patients' Personal Health Information and the CMA's Principles Concerning Physician Information.
The CMA is concerned with the fact that licensed producers, not Health Canada, are the custodians of patient and licensed health practitioner information, in that they collect, use, have access to or disclose this information. For example, security safeguards, written privacy policies and designated accountable privacy officers, must be in place to protect personal health information and licensed practitioner identification in order to ensure that only authorized collection, use and disclosure or access occurs. The text of the proposed amendment addresses "secure transmission" of data, but it must also address secure storage. Safeguards must ensure that there is the same rigour as required for pharmacies as custodians of sensitive private information. The proposed period of record retention of two years should be reviewed in consultation with the professional licensing bodies, to ensure it is sufficient or if it should be extended.
In recognition of the importance of health information privacy, including privacy of patient and physician information, the CMA strongly reiterates its recommendation that Health Canada undertake a privacy impact assessment of the proposed amendment. It is of the utmost importance that the proposed amendments to the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations must conform to privacy laws, and protect patient confidentiality while enabling oversight by
licensing authorities. The CMA recommends Health Canada to engage stakeholders as part of its consultation process as part of this privacy assessment.
3) Clarify and enforce consumer advertising requirements
Regarding direct-to-consumer advertising, while marijuana for medical purposes is exempt from the Food and Drug Regulations, it is subject to requirements specified in the Narcotic Control Regulations and the Food and Drug Act. The CMA is concerned that licensed producers are circumventing existing direct-to-consumer advertising legislative and regulatory standards.
Marijuana for medical purposes is subject to the following sections of the Food and Drugs Act:
3. (1) No person shall advertise any food, drug, cosmetic or device to the general public as a treatment, preventative or cure for any of the diseases, disorders or abnormal physical states referred to in Schedule A.
9. (1) No person shall label, package, treat, process, sell or advertise any drug in a manner that is false, misleading or deceptive or is likely to create an erroneous impression regarding its character, value, quantity, composition, merit or safety.
(2) A drug that is not labelled or packaged as required by, or is labelled or packaged contrary to, the regulations shall be deemed to be labelled or packaged contrary to subsection (1).
Marijuana for medical purposes is subject to the following section of the Narcotic Control Regulations:
70. No person shall
(a) publish or cause to be published or furnish any advertisement respecting a narcotic unless the symbol "N" is clearly and conspicuously displayed in the upper left-hand quarter thereof or, if the advertisement consists of more than one page, on the first page thereof;
(b) publish or cause to be published or furnish any advertisement to the general public respecting a narcotic; or
(c) advertise in a pharmacy a preparation referred to in section 36.
While the legislative and regulatory requirements appear consistent with the requirements governing the advertising of prescription and non-prescription medication, it appears that licensed producers are in gross contravention of these standards. The CMA recommends additional effort and action on the part of Health Canada to ensure compliance and enforcement of direct-to-consumer advertising provisions of the Food and Drugs Act and Narcotic Control Regulations. To this end, the CMA recommends that Health Canada issue guidance documentation outlining compliance with these standards and ensure enforcement of these regulations.
The CMA welcomes the consultation and review of the amendments to the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations with the view of promoting quality care to improve patient safety and public health. The CMA encourages further consultation and welcomes the opportunity to discuss these issues in greater detail.
Overview of recommendations
1. The CMA recommends that the provision of relevant information to licensing authorities should be part of required regular reporting procedures for the licensed producers, consistent with the prescription monitoring program requirements of the respective provincial and territorial jurisdictions.
2. The CMA recommends that Health Canada support the integration of marijuana for medical purposes within provincial/territorial prescription monitoring programs, including facilitating the availability of a point-of-care access tool for health care practitioners.
3. The CMA recommends that the proposed amendments to the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations be reviewed and revised as necessary to ensure it meets the standards of the CMA's Principles for the Protection of Patients' Personal Health Information and the CMA's Principles Concerning Physician Information.
4. The CMA recommends that Health Canada undertake a privacy impact assessment of the proposed amendments to the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations.
5. The CMA recommends additional effort and action on the part of Health Canada to ensure compliance and enforcement of direct-to-consumer advertising provisions of the Food and Drugs Act and Narcotic Control Regulations.
6. The CMA recommends that Health Canada issue guidance documentation outlining compliance with these standards.
List of Appendices:
* Appendix A - CMA Policy Statement: Medical Marijuana
* Appendix B - CMA Policy Statement: Principles for the Protection of Patient ' s Personal Health Information
* Appendix C - CMA Policy Statement: Principles Concerning Physician Information
The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) is pleased to provide the comments below in response to Finance Canada's consultation document Pension Innovation for Canadians: The Target Benefit Plan.
The CMA is the professional voluntary association representing over 80,000 physicians across Canada. Its mission is to serve and unite the physicians of Canada and to be the national advocate, in partnership with the people of Canada, for the highest standards of health and health care.
The CMA has participated in, and made recommendations to, Finance Canada over the course of the government's multi-year consultation process on Canada's pension framework. Indeed, in light of the importance of the pension framework to our membership, the CMA has been an active participant in previous consultations regarding the pension framework. The CMA's participation in the current, multi-year initiative included responding to the 2010 consultative paper Ensuring the Ongoing Strength of Canada's Retirement Income System as well as participating in the legislative and regulatory consultation on the Pooled Registered Pension Plan (PRPP) framework.
While the CMA recognizes that this consultation is focused narrowly on the federally regulated pension plans governed by the Pension Benefits Standards Act 1985, the CMA supports additional consultation on Canada's pension framework. The CMA recommends that Finance Canada expand its consultation to explore options to address weaknesses in Canada's pension framework, including a focus on the third pillar: tax-incentivized savings vehicles.
As part of a consultation on the third pillar, the CMA recommends that Finance Canada explore three issues, as elaborated further below:
* Increasing the combined contribution limit for registered retirement savings plans (RRSPs);
* Enabling well-governed professional organizations that represent a particular membership as pension plan sponsors; and,
* Possible impacts of registered retirement income funds (RRIF) mandatory drawdown rates.
Like the Canadian population at large, physicians represent an aging demographic - 42% of Canada's physicians are 55 or older - for whom retirement planning is an important concern. In addition, the vast majority of CMA members are self-employed physicians and, as such, they are unable to participate in workplace registered pension plans (RPPs). This makes physicians more reliant on Registered Retirement Savings Plans (RRSPs) relative to other retirement savings vehicles.
The Summary Report on Retirement Income Adequacy Research presented to the F/P/T Ministers of Finance in 2009, suggests that higher-earning Canadians may not be saving enough for retirement. This report highlighted that income replacement rates in retirement fall below 60 per cent of after-tax income for about 35 per cent of Canadians in the upper income quintile. This is related to the effect of maximum contribution limits on tax-incentivized retirement savings vehicles.
Tax-incentivized private saving vehicles are a critical element of Canada's pension framework. As highlighted in the 2010 interim report of the Senate Banking Trade and Commerce Canadians Savings for Their Future: A Secure Retirement, the introduction of the RRSP framework in 1957 sought to address a tax inequity due to the ineligibility of private savings for tax-incentive in comparison with registered pension plans. From 1972 to 1991 the RRSP contribution limit was set at 20 percent of earned income and in 1991, the government reduced the contribution limit to 18 percent of earned income; further, over this time period the real value of the absolute dollar limit reduced significantly. Recent increases to the absolute dollar limits have been strongly welcomed.
To ensure that contribution limits do not pose a barrier to saving for future retirement income needs, the CMA recommends that Finance Canada initiate a consultation on future increases to the RRSP contribution limit, both absolute and percent of earned income.
As part of the 2010 Finance Canada consultation and as reiterated during the legislative and regulatory consultation period on the PRPP framework, the CMA highlighted its support for exploring measures to enable organizations to sponsor plans on behalf of the self-employed. During the PRPP consultation, the CMA recommended amending the legislation such that well-governed professional organizations representing a particular membership are able to sponsor and administer PRPPs for their own members, including self-employed members. Once again, the CMA supports an extension of this recommendation to the broader pension framework.
Finally, the CMA has taken note of the concerns regarding the registered retirement income funds (RRIF) mandatory drawdown rates expressed in the C.D. Howe Institute's recent pension policy e-brief Outliving our savings: Registered retirement income funds rules need a big update. The CMA recommends that Finance Canada include RRIF mandatory drawdown rates as part of a consultation.
The CMA appreciates the opportunity to provide comment as part of Finance Canada's consultation on enabling target benefit plans within the federally regulated pension framework. The CMA supports further consultation on Canada's pension plan with an aim to ensure optimization of the third pillar, tax-incentivized savings vehicles, to ensure it enables adequate savings levels by self-employed individuals for their future retirement income needs.
The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) is pleased to provide this brief in response to Health Canada's consultation on the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) "regarding any challenges, gaps or suggested improvements."
The CMA welcomes the consultation and review of the CDSA and its associated regulations. This is an important legislative framework with direct implications for public health, quality care and patient safety.
The CMA's recommendations outlined in this brief aim to establish new measures and mechanisms under the CDSA that would contribute to improved public health and patient safety. The CMA looks forward to the opportunity to discuss these issues in greater detail with Health Canada as this consultation proceeds.
Part 1: Supporting a Regulatory Approach that Advances Public Health, Quality Care and Patient Safety
As an overarching principle, it is the CMA's position that the modernization of the CDSA legislative and regulatory framework should be guided first and foremost by the objective of improving public health, promoting quality care and enhancing patient safety.
In enacting the CDSA and promulgating its regulations, enforcement objectives have been emphasized, as demonstrated by the report on program spending in the National Anti-Drug Strategy Evaluation. The modernization of the CDSA legislative framework offers a significant opportunity to contribute to the greater advancement of public health and patient safety goals by establishing mechanisms that support prevention, treatment and harm reduction. This approach supports the Government of Canada's Throne Speech commitment to address prescription drug abuse as part of the National Anti-Drug Strategy.
In 2013, the CMA's General Council, often referred to the Parliament of Canadian Medicine, recommended "that there be an increased emphasis on public health-oriented approaches by regulatory authorities responsible for psychoactive substances." Substance abuse is a complex behaviour influenced by many factors, and a therefore a public health approach to addressing it should incorporate a comprehensive multi-factorial strategy.
A public health approach would place an increased focus on preventing drug abuse and misuse; on treatment of addiction and other consequences of misuse; on monitoring, surveillance and research; and on harm reduction. It would seek to ensure the harms associated with enforcement (e.g. crime, disease due to use of dirty needles) are not out of proportion to the direct harms caused by substance abuse. The CMA recommends that the modernization of the CDSA legislative framework focus on enabling and supporting such a public health approach.
It should be noted that the substances governed by the CDSA include medications used by patients and prescribed by health care professionals for legitimate therapeutic purposes. We note that the schedules attached to the CDSA do not make a distinction between illicit substances of abuse and prescription medication. For example, Schedule I includes both illicit substances such as heroin, and opioid prescription medicines like oxycodone and hydrocodone. The potential of a drug or medication to cause harm has little if anything to do with its legal status. Therefore, the CMA recommends that as part of the review of the CDSA and its regulations, Health Canada undertake a review of the schedules, including the organization of the schedules, and the listing of substances within each schedule. The purpose of this review is to ensure that: (1) the schedules are up-to-date; (2) the CDSA allows for the incorporation of new illicit substances and prescription medication on the basis of available evidence and in a timely manner; and, (3) the schedules are organized based on risk status, legal status or other consideration.
In the following sections, the CMA outlines recommendations that would facilitate the expansion of a public health approach.
A) Establish Mechanisms to Address Prescription Drug Misuse and Abuse
The misuse and abuse of controlled psychoactive prescription medicines, notably opioids such as oxycodone, fentanyl and hydrocodone, is a significant public health and patient safety issue. Canada has the second highest per capita consumption of prescription opioids in the world, after the United States.
The abuse and misuse of prescription opioids among vulnerable populations, remains a significant concern. For instance, in 2013 opioids were reported as the third most common drug (after alcohol and marijuana) used by students in Ontario. While accurate data on the prevalence of the misuse of prescription medication among seniors is lacking, the CMA is concerned that as Canada's population ages, an increasing number of seniors will need treatment for harms related to prescription medication use, such as drug interactions, falls due to drowsiness or lack of coordination.
Controlled prescription medications are legal products intended for legitimate therapeutic purposes, i.e. to control pain from cancer or terminal illness, or from chronic conditions such as nerve damage due to injury. However, they may also be misused or abused, and addiction may drive some users to illegal behaviour such as doctor-shopping, forging prescribers' signatures, or buying from street dealers.
Canada's physicians are deeply concerned about the misuse and abuse of prescription opioid medication for a number of reasons. First, physicians need to assess the condition of the patient who requests the medication, and consider whether its use is clinically indicated and if the benefits outweigh the risks. Secondly, they may need to prescribe treatment for patients who have become addicted to the medication. Finally, they are vulnerable to patients who forge the physician's signature or use other illegal means to obtain prescriptions, or who present with fraudulent symptoms, or plead or threaten when denied the drugs they have requested.
The 2014 federal budget promises $44.9 million over 5 years to the National Anti-Drug Strategy to address prescription drug abuse, and CMA believes that this is a positive step. Health Canada, in its role as drug regulator, could use the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act to help further this strategy in the following ways:
i) Improving the approval, labelling and safety monitoring of controlled substances
The CMA recommends that new sections be introduced to the CDSA to require higher levels of regulatory scrutiny for controlled prescription medication, during both the approval process and post-approval surveillance. Specifically, the CDSA should be amended to require:
* More stringent pre-approval requirements for controlled prescription medication. Because of their high level of risk, Health Canada could require that they be subject to higher levels of scrutiny than other medications during the review of pre-approval clinical trial results, special post-approval conditions(e.g. formal post-market studies);
* Stricter conditions on the marketing of controlled medication by the pharmaceutical industry to health professionals.
* Tamper-resistant formulations of prescription opioid medication. New opioid medication or potentially addictive formulations should be tamper-resistant to reduce the potential for misuse or abuse.
* Improved patient information and counseling to be offered to prescribers, dispensers, and patients receiving opioid prescriptions.
ii) Establishing consistent requirements for prescription monitoring
In our brief to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Health (see Appendix A), during its study on prescription drug abuse, the CMA encouraged all levels of government to work with one another and health professional regulatory agencies to develop a pan-Canadian system of real-time prescription monitoring and surveillance. Indeed, all stakeholders who testified before the Committee recognized the importance of prescription monitoring programs in addressing prescription drug abuse.
While prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) exist in most provinces, they vary considerably in terms of quality, the nature of the information they require, whether health care practitioners have real-time access, and in the purpose for which the data is collected. Standardization of surveillance and monitoring systems can contribute to addressing the misuse and abuse of prescription medication by:
* Allowing health care practitioners to identify fraudulent attempts to obtain a prescription, such as an attempt to fill prescriptions from a number of different providers, at the time the prescription is requested or filled.
* Deter interprovincial or jurisdictional fraud, again, by allowing health care practitioners to identify fraudulent attempts at the time the prescription is requested or filled.
* Improve professional regulatory bodies' capacity for oversight and intervention, by establishing a mechanism for real-time monitoring.
* Finally, help Canada's researchers improve our knowledge of this serious public health concern, identify research priorities, and determine best practices to address crucial issues.
Such a system should be compatible with existing electronic medical and pharmacy record systems and with provincial pharmaceutical databases such as that of British Columbia. Participation in prescription monitoring programs should not impose an onerous administrative burden on health care providers. Integration with electronic health records and the widespread use of electronic databases and transmission would go far to minimize the potential burden.
The CMA recommends that a new reporting regulation be promulgated under the CDSA that addresses reporting requirements and disclosure requirements of practitioners, manufacturers and other stakeholders, in order to establish consistent standards for prescription monitoring. This regulation should:
* Enable inter-jurisdictional accessibility and operability;
* Ensure that practitioners have real-time access to the monitoring system;
* Enable electronically-based prescription monitoring; and;
* Conform to privacy laws, protecting patient confidentiality while enabling the sharing of necessary information. (Privacy concerns are addressed in greater detail in Part 2).
B) Supporting harm reduction as a component of a drug strategy
The CMA fully endorses harm reduction strategies and tools, including supervised injection sites, and believes that the CDSA should support and enable them. It is the CMA's position that addiction should be recognized and treated as a serious medical condition.
Section 56 of the CDSA sets out conditions under which applicants may obtain exemptions from the provisions of the Act. Bill C-2, currently at Second Reading in the House of Commons, proposes new, far reaching, and stringent conditions that must be met by a proponent who is applying to establish a supervised injection site. The CMA maintains that safe injection sites are a legitimate form of treatment for the disease of addiction, that their benefit is supported by a body of research, and that the conditions proposed under Bill C-2 are overly restrictive.
In addition, to support harm reduction, the CMA encourages Health Canada to amend section 2 (2) (b) (ii) (B) of the CDSA that states a controlled substance includes "any thing that contains or has on it a controlled substance and that is used or intended or designed for use... in introducing the substance into a human body" in order to enable the important role of safe injection sites.
C) Developing clinical knowledge base about the medical use of marijuana
The CMA has already made its position on the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations known to Health Canada (see Appendix B). Despite repeated revisions since they were first established in 2001, the regulations do not address CMA's primary concern; that physicians are made gatekeepers for a product whose medical benefits have not been sufficiently researched, and which has not undergone the clinical trial process required for therapeutic products under the Food and Drugs Act. The absence of clinical evidence means that physicians lack scientific information and guidance on the uses, benefits and risks of marijuana when used for medicinal purposes. To address these issues, the CMA recommends that Health Canada invest in scientific research on the medical uses of marijuana. This could include establishing market incentives for Licensed Producers to undertake research, or requiring them to contribute to a research fund administered by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. In addition, the CMA encourages the development and dissemination of evidence-based clinical support tools for physicians.
Part 2: Ensuring protection of patient privacy
In any legislative framework pertaining to patient care, physicians consider protecting the privacy of patient information to be paramount; indeed, privacy, confidentiality and trust are cornerstones of the patient-physician relationship (see Appendix C). For these reasons, the CMA strongly recommends that Health Canada undertake a privacy impact assessment of the existing CDSA and its regulations as well as of future proposed amendments. The CMA encourages Health Canada to make this assessment available to stakeholders as part of its consultation process on this legislative framework.
As previously mentioned, the new regulation proposed under Part 1 (A) (ii) above must conform to privacy laws, and protect patient confidentiality while enabling the sharing of necessary information.
The CMA is deeply concerned with the search provision under s.31 of the CDSA in which an exception to this broad authority for patient records is mentioned in subsection (1) (c). The CMA is concerned that this exception may not be sufficient to meet the existing privacy laws governing patient information and records, both federally and provincially. As such, the CMA recommends that the CDSA be amended to ensure that patient information and records are exempt from search authorities, consistent with the most stringent privacy laws at the federal and provincial jurisdictions.
Part 3: Enabling e-prescribing
As part of the review of the CDSA and its associated regulations, Health Canada should assess how this legislative framework may be used to facilitate and support the advancement of e-health, specifically e-prescribing. Electronic health records can support individual physicians or pharmacists to quickly identify potential diversion and double-doctoring, at the point where a prescription is written or filled. The electronic health record also facilitates the sharing of information among health professionals, as well as programs that allow physicians to compare their prescribing practices to those of their peers.
For instance, sections of the Benzodiazepines and Other Targeted Substances Regulations, Narcotic Control Regulations, and Precursor Control Regulations, establish the conditions within which pharmacists may accept a prescription. The CMA recommends that these regulations be amended to specifically include electronic prescriptions in addition to verbal and written prescriptions among the forms that may be accepted by a pharmacist. This recommendation is consistent with the joint statement by the CMA and the Canadian Pharmacists Association on e-prescribing (see Appendix D).
Health Canada should also ensure that regulatory amendments facilitate prescription monitoring, as discussed in a previous section.
Part 4: Establishing a mechanism for changes to scope of practice
The New Classes of Prescribers Regulations, promulgated in 2012, grants nurse practitioners, midwives and podiatrists the authority to prescribe controlled substances if their provincial scope of practice laws permit. The CMA's 2012 submission in response to this regulatory change is attached to this brief for information (Appendix E.) In it, the CMA recommended that "A regulatory framework governing prescribing authority, or any other aspect of scope of practice, should always put patient safety first. The primary purpose of scope of practice determination is to meet the health care needs and serve the health interests of patients and the public safely, efficiently, and competently." One of our main concerns at the time was that the more practitioners who could prescribe controlled substances, the greater the potential for the illegal diversion of products to street dealers. This remains a concern for us.
Given the significance of scope-of-practice determinations to patient safety and patient care, the CMA strongly recommends that future changes to the scope of practice of a health care practitioner be undertaken only within a defined, transparent evaluation process based on clinical criteria and protection of patient safety.
To this end, the CMA strongly recommends the introduction of new clauses to the CDSA and its associated regulations to establish a mechanism that governs future changes to scope of practice. These clauses should require, prior to the implementation of any change:
* Demonstration that it will improve public health and patient safety;
* Meaningful consultation with professional organizations and regulatory authorities; and,
* Support of provincial and territorial ministers of health.
Further, the CMA recommends that such a new regulation governing possible future changes to scope of practice require:
* That new classes of prescribers have conflict of interest policies;
* That new classes of prescribers be incorporated under the prescription monitoring regulation recommended under Part 1 (A) (ii) above; and
* That a mandatory five-year review be established for new classes of prescribers.
Part 5: Recognizing the authority of physician regulatory colleges
As previously mentioned, many controlled substances governed under the CDSA and its associated regulations are prescribed by physicians and other health professionals, for therapeutic purposes.
Medicine is a regulated profession, and the colleges of physicians have ultimate authority and responsibility for the oversight of physician practice, including monitoring prescribing activity, investigating practice and when required, taking disciplinary action.
In its present form, section 59 of the Narcotic Control Regulations includes a duplicative and redundant provision for oversight and disciplinary action. The CMA strongly recommends that this section be amended to recognize the established authority of physician regulatory colleges for the oversight of the medical profession.
The CMA welcomes the consultation and review of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and its associated regulations. As mentioned before, this submission is not an exhaustive analysis of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act¸ but an initial summary of CMA's position on issues of particular concern to patient safety and public health. This brief outlines numerous opportunities within the CDSA and its associated regulations to establish new measures and mechanisms that would contribute to improved public health and patient safety.
In light of the breadth and importance of the issues raised in this review, CMA encourages further consultation and welcomes the opportunity to discuss these issues in greater detail.
List of Appendices:
* Appendix A: CMA Brief to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Health - The Need for a National Strategy to Address Abuse and Misuse of Prescription Drugs in Canada
* Appendix B: CMA Policy Statement - Medical Marijuana
* Appendix C: CMA Policy Statement - Principles for the Protection of Patient's Personal Health Information
* Appendix D: CMA Policy Statement - Vision for e-Prescribing: a joint statement by the Canadian Medical Association and the Canadian Pharmacists Association
* Appendix E: CMA submission - Response to the proposed New Classes of Practitioners regulations published in the Canada Gazette Part I (Vol. 146, No. 18 - May 5, 2012)
Overview of recommendations
The CMA recommends that the modernization of the CDSA legislative and regulatory framework should be guided first and foremost by the objective of improving public health, promoting quality care and enhancing patient safety.
The CMA recommends that as part of the review of the CDSA and its regulations, Health Canada undertake a review of the schedules, including the organization of the schedules, and the listing of substances within each schedule.
The CMA recommends that new sections be introduced to the CDSA to require higher levels of regulatory scrutiny as part of the approval and post-approval process for prescription opioid medication.
The CMA recommends that a new reporting regulation be promulgated under the CDSA that addresses reporting requirements and disclosure requirements of practitioners, manufacturers and other stakeholders in order to establish consistent standards for prescription monitoring.
To support harm reduction, the CMA recommends an amendment to section 2 (b) (ii) of the CDSA, which states a controlled substance includes "any thing that contains or has on it a controlled substance and that is used or intended or designed for use... in introducing the substance into a human body".
The CMA recommends that Health Canada invest in scientific research on the medical uses of marijuana. This could include establishing market incentives that require Licensed Producers to undertake research, or requiring them to contribute to a research fund administered by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. In addition, the CMA encourages the development and dissemination of evidence-based clinical support tools for physicians.
The CMA recommends that Health Canada undertake a privacy impact assessment of the existing CDSA and its regulations as well as future proposed amendments, and provide this assessment to stakeholders as part of its consultation process on this legislative framework.
The CMA recommends that the CDSA, specifically s.31 (1) (c), be amended to ensure that patient information and records are exempt from search authorities, consistent with the most stringent privacy laws at the federal and provincial jurisdictions.
The CMA recommends that the CDSA and its regulations be amended to specifically include electronic prescriptions in addition to verbal and written prescriptions among the forms that may be accepted by a pharmacist, including sections within the Benzodiazepines and Other Targeted Substances Regulations, Narcotic Control Regulations, and Precursor Control Regulations.
The CMA recommends the introduction of new clauses to the CDSA and its associated regulations to establish a mechanism that governs future changes to scope of practice, based on the introduction of a new regulation governing changes to scope of practice that will require, prior to the implementation of any change:
* Demonstration of public health and patient safety improvement;
* Meaningful consultation with professional organizations and regulatory authorities; and,
* Support of provincial and territorial ministers of health.
The CMA recommends that the new mechanism of the CDSA legislative framework governing possible future changes to scope of practice require:
* That new classes of prescribers have conflict of interest policies;
* That new classes of prescribers be incorporated under the prescription monitoring regulation recommended under Part 1 (A) (ii) above; and
* That a mandatory five-year review be established for new classes of prescribers.
The CMA strongly recommends that s.59 of the Narcotic Control Regulations be amended to recognize the established authority of physician regulatory colleges for the oversight of the medical profession.
The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) is pleased to provide its response to the Tamper resistance under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act consultation, published in the Canada Gazette on June 28, 2014. The CMA encourages Health Canada to accelerate the development of regulations to require products containing specified controlled substances, or classes thereof, to have tamper-resistant properties in order to be sold in Canada.
The CMA reiterates its overarching recommendation to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Health during its 2014 study on addressing prescription drug abuse1; that the federal government work with provincial/territorial governments and other stakeholders to develop and implement a comprehensive national strategy to address the misuse and abuse of prescription medication in Canada. The CMA recommends that such a strategy must include prevention, treatment, surveillance and research, as well as consumer protection. One form of consumer protection is the requirement of modifications to the drugs themselves with the intent of minimizing their abuse potential.
The CMA also reiterates its recommendation made to Health Canada during the consultation on the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) and its regulations in 20142, that Health Canada establish higher levels of regulatory scrutiny for controlled prescription medication, with more stringent pre-approval requirements. In that brief, the CMA recommends that prescription opioid medication or other potentially addictive medications have tamper- resistant formulations3 to reduce the potential for misuse or abuse.
A similar position is taken by the National Advisory Council on Substance Misuse's strategy, First Do No Harm: Responding to Canada's Prescription Drug Crisis4, where one of the 58 recommendations made is that governments and other stakeholders "review existing evidence and/or conduct objective and independent research on the effectiveness of tamper-resistant and abuse-deterrent technology and packaging and make recommendations as needed to reduce the harms associated with prescription drugs and paediatric exposure."
Tamper-resistant technology aims to reduce abuse readiness and reduce dependence potential of psychoactive medications, by reducing or impeding the achievement of a rapid euphoric effect ("high") from tampering of the formulation. This can be accomplished by altering physical or chemical properties or absorption rate, prolonging half-life, developing
Canadian Medical Association (2013) The need for a national strategy to address abuse and misuse of prescription drugs in Canada. CMA
Submission to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Health. CMA. Retrieved from: https://www.cma.ca/Assets/assets- library/document/en/advocacy/Prescription-Drug- Abuse_en.pdf#search=The%20need%20for%20a%20national%20strategy%20to%20address%20abuse%20and%20misuse%20of%20prescription
Canadian Medical Association (2014) Review of Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. Submission to Health Canada in response to the
consultation on the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and its regulations. CMA. Retrieved from: https://www.cma.ca/Assets/assets- library/document/en/advocacy/CMA_SubmissiontoHealthCanada- CDSA_Modernization.pdf#search=Submission%20to%20Health%20Canada%20in%20response%20to%20the%20consultation%20on%20the%20 Controlled%20Drugs%20and%20Substances%20Act%20and%20its%20regulations%2E
3 There are different terms to characterize efforts to prevent the manipulation of psychoactive medications for abuse purposes: abuse or tamper
resistant formulations, abuse or tamper deterrent formulations and others. In the literature, and for the purpose of this submission, terms are sometimes used interchangeably.
National Advisory Committee on Prescription Drug Misuse (2013) First do no harm: Responding to Canada's prescription drug crisis. Ottawa:
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (p30). Retrieved from: http://www.ccsa.ca/resource%20library/canada-strategy-prescription-drug-misuse- report-en.pdf
prodrugs (inactive forms that are converted to active forms in the human body), or adding ingredients that are unattractive to users when the drug is altered.
The science around tamper resistance is relatively recent, and analytical, clinical and other methods for developing and evaluating such technologies is increasing. The regulations will have to account for this new and evolving area of expertise, in maintaining scientific rigour in the assessment and evaluation of new formulations both in the pre-approval stage as well as in the post-approval monitoring, while still ensuring efficacy for their target indication.5
Pre-marketing evaluations assess the potentially tamper-resistant properties of a product under controlled circumstances. They should include laboratory-based, pharmacokinetic and clinical abuse potential studies. Post-approval monitoring seeks to determine whether the marketing of the potentially tamper-resistant formulation results in changes in patterns of use, addiction, overdoses and deaths. It is important to understand whether there have been successful attempts to defeat or compromise such formulations. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration has not approved explicit label claims of abuse deterrence and will wait until there is sufficient post-marketing data.6 7 Generic manufacturers would have to be held to the same standards.
The availability of good quality, systematic surveillance data from Canadian populations is essential to demonstrate epidemiological trends, and would inform these regulations. Regulations must take into consideration the drugs that are most frequently diverted for abuse, the most frequent forms of abuse of each drug, those causing most overdoses and deaths and the populations that are most affected.
As stated previously, it is essential that such regulations be part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce abuse of prescription medications. Studies have shown that if no other measures are taken, people who are dealing with addiction and dependence will simply shift to another prescription drug that is not tamper-resistant, or even to illegal drugs. Deterrence is specific to the drug in question. Such has been the case with the introduction of oxycodone with the tamper-resistant formulation, OxyNEO(r), with a significant reduction of oxycodone as a drug of choice. However, at the same time, there was a rise in the use of heroin and other opioids which did not have abuse deterrent technology8, 9.
Tamper-resistant technologies have not been proven to be 100% effective in preventing abuse. They are not successful in preventing the most common form of abuse, which is the ingestion of a large number of intact pills, although there have been some attempts at the addition of aversive agents. There is, however, the potential for a significant reduction in the
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (2013) Guidance for Industry: abuse-deterrent opioids - evaluation and labeling. Draft Guidance.
Food and Drug Administration. US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM334743.pdf 6
Romach, MK, Schoedel, KA, & Sellers, EM (2013) Update on tamper-resistant drug formulations. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 130: 13-23.
Shaeffer, T (2012) Abuse-deterrent formulations, an evolving technology against the abuse and misuse of opioid analgesics. J.Med.Toxicol.
Cicero, TJ, Ellis, MS, Surratt, HL (2012 Jul 12). Effect of abuse-deterrent formulation of OxyContin. N Engl J Med. 367(2): 187-9.
The Conference Board of Canada (2014) Innovations and policy solutions for addressing prescription drug abuse: summary report. Retrieved
progression from oral to other forms of use, such as chewing, snorting, smoking and injecting. There is an additional challenge, which is the fact that information about procedures and recipes for drug tampering is available among people who use drugs, and sometimes is found on the Internet.
There is the possibility of negative unintended consequences in mandating tamper-resistant properties as a condition of sale for selected prescription drugs. There have been anecdotal reports that such forms might not be as effective in addressing the therapeutic needs of some patients. As well, some patients have had difficulties in swallowing tamper-resistant formulations of some drugs. It is essential that the regulations ensure that these medications have adequate clinical testing to ensure bioequivalence to the original formulations, without added adverse effects.
The regulations must also take into account the affordability of the new formulations - that the development costs of the tamper-resistant technology not result in an excessive increase in the cost to patients. This must be closely monitored so that there are adequate options for pain management.
Prescription drug abuse is a complex and very concerning health problem, and it will require more than a single policy solution. Safer drug formulations have the potential to be an important element of a comprehensive strategy, as medications are necessary tools for the treatment of pain. However, other components such as better surveillance and monitoring, clinical guidelines and tools, and enhanced access to withdrawal and addiction treatment services, as well as mental health and specialized pain services are also essential.
The CMA is pleased to provide the recommendations listed below on the development and establishment of new regulations and encourages Health Canada to accelerate the advancement of the draft regulations.
The CMA recommends that:
1. Health Canada accelerate the establishment requirements for tamper-resistant formulations with the intent of minimizing their abuse potential, as part of a comprehensive national strategy to address the misuse and abuse of prescription medication in Canada, in collaboration with provincial/territorial governments and other stakeholders.
2. both brand name and generic manufacturers be held to the same standards regarding tamper-resistant formulations.
3. the regulations account for the new and evolving area of expertise in tamper-resistance formulations, in maintaining scientific rigour in the assessment and evaluation of new formulations in the pre-approval and post-marketing stages.
4. the regulations ensure that tamper-resistant formulations maintain the same levels of efficacy for their target therapeutic indication as the original formulations, without added adverse effects.
5. the regulations include requirements for post-approval monitoring to determine whether the marketing of the potentially tamper-resistant formulation results in changes in patterns of use, addiction, overdoses and deaths.
6. Health Canada strengthen surveillance systems to collect necessary data from Canadian populations to inform these regulations regarding epidemiological trends, including the drugs that are most frequently diverted for abuse, the most frequent forms of abuse of each drug, those causing most overdoses and deaths and the populations that are affected.