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CMA PolicyBase

Policies that advocate for the medical profession and Canadians


15 records – page 1 of 2.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Update 2000)

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy165
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2000-12-09
Topics
Health care and patient safety
  1 document  
Policy Type
Policy document
Last Reviewed
2020-02-29
Date
2000-12-09
Replaces
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (1989)
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Text
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (UPDATE 2000) The Canadian Medical Association has developed the following general principles to serve as guidelines for various bodies, health care professionals and the general public. Specific aspects of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficency syndrome (AIDS) that relate to physicians' ethical responsibilities as well as society's moral obligations are discussed. Such matters include: the need for education, research and treatment resources; the patient's right to investigation and treatment and to refuse either; the need to obtain the patient's informed consent; the right to privacy and confidentiality; the importance of infection control; and the right to financial compensation in the case of occupational exposure to HIV. Education Physicians should keep their knowledge of AIDS and HIV infection up to date. Physicians should educate patients and the general public in the prevention of AIDS by informing them of means available to protect against the risk of HIV infection and to avoid further transmission of the virus. Health authorities should maintain an active public education program on AIDS that includes the school population and such initiatives as public service announcements by the media. Resources All levels of government should provide resources for adequate information and education of health care professionals and the public on HIV-related diseases; research into the prevention and treatment of HIV infection and AIDS; and the availability and accessibility of proper diagnosis and care for all patients with HIV infection. HIV antibody testing Physicians have an ethical responsibility to recommend appropriate testing for HIV antibody and to care for their patients with AIDS or refer them to where treatment is available. Physicians should provide counselling to patients before and after HIV antibody testing. Because of the potential psychologic, social and economic consequences attached to a positive HIV test result, informed consent must, with rare exceptions, be obtained from a patient before testing. However, the CMA endorses informed mandatory testing for HIV infection in cases involving the donation of blood, body fluids or organs. The CMA recognizes that people who have doubts about their serologic status may avoid being tested for fear of indiscretion and therefore supports voluntary non-nominal testing of potential HIV carriers on request. The CMA supports the Canadian Blood Service and Hema-Québec in their programs of testing and screening blood donations and blood products. Confidentiality in reporting and contact tracing The CMA supports the position that cases of HIV infection should be reported non-nominally with enough information to be epidemiologically useful. In addition, each confirmed case of AIDS should be reported non-nominally to a designated authority for epidemiologic purposes. The CMA encourages attending physicians to assist public health authorities to trace and counsel confidentially all contacts of patients with HIV infection. Contact tracing should be carried out with the cooperation and participation of the patient to provide maximum flexibility and effectiveness in alerting and counselling as many potentially infected people as possible. In some jurisdictions physicians may be compelled to provide detailed information to public health authorities. In such circumstances, the CMA urges those involved to maintain confidentiality to the greatest extent possible and to take all reasonable steps to inform the patient that their information is being disclosed. The CMA Code of Ethics (article 22) advises physicians that disclosure of a patient’s HIV status to a spouse or current sexual partner may not be unethical and, indeed, may be indicated when physicians are confronted with an HIV-infected patient who is unwilling to inform the person at risk. Such disclosure may be justified when all of the following conditions are met: the partner is at risk of infection with HIV and has no other reasonable means of knowing of the risk; the patient has refused to inform his or her sexual partner; the patient has refused an offer of assistance by the physician to do so on the patient's behalf; and the physician has informed the patient of his or her intention to disclose the information to the partner. The CMA stresses the need to respect the confidentiality of patients with HIV infection and consequently recommends that legal and regulatory safeguards to protect such confidentiality be established and maintained. Infection control Health care institutions and professionals should ensure that adequate infection-control measures in the handling of blood and body fluids are in place and that the rights of professionals directly involved in patient care to be informed of and protected from the risks of HIV infection are safeguarded. The CMA does not recommend routine testing of hospitalized patients. The CMA urges appropriate funding agencies to assess the explicit and implicit costs of infection control measures and to ensure that additional funds are provided to cover these extraordinary costs. Occupational exposure and the health care professional Health care workers should receive adequate financial compensation in the case of HIV infection acquired as a result of accidental occupational exposure. Physicians and other health care providers with HIV infection have the same rights as others to be protected from wrongful discrimination in the workplace and to be eligible for financial compensation for work-related infection. Physicians with HIV infection should consult appropriate colleagues to determine the nature and extent of the risk related to their continued involvement in the care of patients.
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CMA Patient Safety Policy Framework (Update 2010)

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9747
Last Reviewed
2018-03-03
Date
2010-02-27
Topics
Health care and patient safety
  1 document  
Policy Type
Policy document
Last Reviewed
2018-03-03
Date
2010-02-27
Replaces
CMA Patient Safety Policy Framework (2001)
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Text
CMA PATIENT SAFETY POLICY FRAMEWORK (Update 2010) BACKGROUND The CMA’s mission is to promote the highest standard of health and health care for Canadians. This means, among other things, ensuring that the health care system is safe for patients and providers and effective in achieving good health outcomes for individuals and society. Unfortunately, studies published in recent years have raised concern that health care is not as safe as it could be; data collected by researchers in various countries has shown that there are unacceptably high levels of preventable adverse events, as high as 16% in one study of adverse events associated with hospital admissions. A study conducted by G. R. Baker, P.G. Norton et al, “The Canadian Adverse Events Study: the incidence of adverse events among hospital patients in Canada” showed an adverse event rate of 7.5 per 100 hospital admissions. (1) This suggests that of the nearly 2.5 million hospital admissions yearly in Canada, approximately 185,000 are associated with an adverse event and 70,000 of those possibly preventable. These studies have focused attention on health care error and adverse events, but patient safety requires that participants in the health care system are constantly aware of the risks present in the system, and that risks are addressed proactively - preferably before an adverse event occurs. If a preventable adverse event does occur, it provides an opportunity to learn about and correct sources of error. The CMA considers that a national patient safety strategy, aimed at building a culture of safety, is a priority. This Policy Framework has been developed to provide a clear statement of the CMA’s views on the principles that should underpin a patient safety strategy and to ensure clear support and direction for CMA members and staff involved in patient safety initiatives. PRINCIPLES The Health Care System Outcomes Errors and adverse events are inevitable in any complex system and more complex systems are more prone to errors. Nevertheless, studies have demonstrated an unacceptably high level of preventable adverse events associated with management of health care. 1. Patient safety initiatives should aim to improve health outcomes for patients by minimizing the rate of preventable adverse events and improving the management of events when they occur. Quality 2. Patient safety is one aspect of quality health care; activities relating to patient safety should result in a net increase in the quality of health care. Systemic factors 3. Patient safety initiatives should recognize that error and adverse events occur because of qualities of the system within which individuals operate. A primary concern of initiatives should be to prevent future errors by addressing the system rather than blaming and punishing individuals. Accountability The Canadian public has a reasonable expectation that health care will not result in avoidable injury. 4. Patient safety initiatives should support the accountability of the health sector, including providers, funders and regulators, to patients and the wider public for the safety of health care. Participants in Health Care Patients as partners 5. Patient safety initiatives should promote the role of patients as partners in the provision of safe care, including the prevention and management of adverse events. 6. Patient safety initiatives should encourage and anticipate the full and appropriate disclosure to patients of relevant information that is material to their health and healthcare, including information about adverse events or effects. Professional responsibility and support With a very few exceptions, health care is delivered by competent, caring professionals who are striving to achieve a good outcome for patients. 7. Patient safety initiatives should recognize the responsibility of professionals for achieving and maintaining the standard of their own practice. 8. Patient safety initiatives, while responding appropriately to adverse events, should be sensitive to the professional role and personal well being of individual physicians and other health care providers. Learning and Collaboration 9. Patient safety initiatives should promote and reflect teamwork, communication and collaboration at all levels. 10. Patient safety initiatives should support learning from one’s own experience and the sharing of knowledge so that it is possible to learn from the experience of others. Legal and Regulatory Environment 11. Patient Safety initiatives should promote a legal and regulatory environment that supports open communication and effective management of adverse events. 12. The protection afforded to the opinions expressed within quality assurance committees must be upheld Evidence Base and Evaluation Patient safety initiatives should be based on sound evidence. Patient safety initiatives should contain provision for appropriate evaluation. Patient safety initiatives should contain provision for broad dissemination of findings. PATIENT SAFETY INITIATIVE AREAS Building a culture of safety in Canadian health care will require the collaboration of many different groups and organizations. The CMA can play a leadership role within this larger group and within its own constituency of over 70,000 physicians. In some instances, it will be the CMA’s role to advocate for initiatives that can be delivered only by another provider or through a consortium; in other instances, CMA can assume sole responsibility for taking action. The CMA has identified that, as priorities, it will support: Advocacy for changes to legislation and regulation that would remove disincentives for health care providers to share information about adverse events. Raising awareness of patient safety and changing attitudes towards risk, error and adverse events within the health care community. Developing and providing resources such as clinical practice guidelines and information technology systems that have been shown to standardize practice and reduce adverse events. Reporting systems that collect and aggregate data on risks so that good practices can be developed and shared. Education and training for health care professionals and managers to provide them with the conceptual and practical tools to introduce change into their practice and organizations. Advocacy for, and development of, an agenda for patient safety research in Canada. The involvement of government at all levels in supporting and committing resources to initiatives for improved patient safety. GLOSSARY Adverse event – any unintended injury or complication that is caused by health care management rather than the patient’s disease and that leads to prolonged hospital stay, morbidity or mortality. Adverse events do not necessarily result from error, for example a toxic reaction to a drug in a patient without apparent risk factors for the reaction. Error – the failure of a planned action to be completed as intended (“error of execution”) or the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim (“error of planning”). An error may not result in an adverse event if the error does not result in harm or is intercepted. Risk – the chance of injury or loss as defined as a measure of the probability and severity of an adverse effect to health, property, the environment or other things of value. (1) G. Ross Baker, Peter G. Norton, Virginia Flintoft, Régis Blais, Adalsteinn Brown, Jafna Cox, Ed Etchells, William A. Ghali, Philip Hébert, Sumit R. Majumdar, Maeve O'Beirne, Luz Palacios-Derflingher, Robert J. Reid, Sam Sheps, and Robyn Tamblyn. The Canadian Adverse Events Study: the incidence of adverse events among hospital patients in Canada Can. Med. Assoc. J., May 2004; 170: 1678 - 1686.
Documents
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CMA statement on emerging therapies

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy10352
Last Reviewed
2018-03-03
Date
26-08-2010
Topics
Health care and patient safety
  1 document  
Policy Type
Policy document
Last Reviewed
2018-03-03
Date
26-08-2010
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Text
CMA Statement on Emerging Therapies The CMA is keenly aware of the heart-rending suffering experienced by MS patients and the devastating impact it has on families and we recognize how desperately they are seeking treatments to alleviate their symptoms. Physicians and researchers dedicate their lives to finding new treatments to prevent and ease the suffering of patients while supporting those battling disease. Along with the physician's care and compassion, clinical research is a key weapon in the battle to manage and treat disease. The CMA believes that all medical decisions must be based upon scientific evidence. That is at the heart of our commitment to patient-centred care. The CMA is committed to the principle that, before any new treatment is adopted and applied by the medical profession, it must first be rigorously tested and recognized as evidence-based. This principle is highly relevant in the case of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) recent recommendations. The CMA concurs with the CIHR's position on the need for an evidence-based approach to the development of clinical trials of the recently proposed condition called "chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency" (CCSVI). We would hope that the findings of the seven diagnostic studies that are underway will be shared and analyzed as soon as they become available, and that clinical intervention trials would be supported as indicated by the evidence and if researchers come forward with scientifically sound ethical protocols. If additional Canadian funding bodies initiate clinical research in the area, we would encourage CIHR to provide advice if requested.
Documents
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Health risks associated with tanning facilities

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9880
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-82
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, will call on governments to strengthen labelling requirements on tanning equipment and require signage in tanning facilities that outlines the carcinogenic potential and overall health risks associated with tanning facilities.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-82
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, will call on governments to strengthen labelling requirements on tanning equipment and require signage in tanning facilities that outlines the carcinogenic potential and overall health risks associated with tanning facilities.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, will call on governments to strengthen labelling requirements on tanning equipment and require signage in tanning facilities that outlines the carcinogenic potential and overall health risks associated with tanning facilities.
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Regulating the artificial tanning industry

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9881
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-83
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, affiliate and associate organizations and other stakeholders, will call on all levels of government to regulate the artificial tanning industry, with a focus on banning access to children and youth under 18 years of age.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-83
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, affiliate and associate organizations and other stakeholders, will call on all levels of government to regulate the artificial tanning industry, with a focus on banning access to children and youth under 18 years of age.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, affiliate and associate organizations and other stakeholders, will call on all levels of government to regulate the artificial tanning industry, with a focus on banning access to children and youth under 18 years of age.
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Comprehensive pregnancy care

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9882
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-84
The Canadian Medical Association will work with provincial/territorial medical associations, affiliate and associate organizations, and other stakeholders to further develop educational materials for primary care providers and women on the importance of pre-pregnancy and early-pregnancy health, and early access to comprehensive pregnancy care.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-84
The Canadian Medical Association will work with provincial/territorial medical associations, affiliate and associate organizations, and other stakeholders to further develop educational materials for primary care providers and women on the importance of pre-pregnancy and early-pregnancy health, and early access to comprehensive pregnancy care.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association will work with provincial/territorial medical associations, affiliate and associate organizations, and other stakeholders to further develop educational materials for primary care providers and women on the importance of pre-pregnancy and early-pregnancy health, and early access to comprehensive pregnancy care.
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Installation of automatic external defibrillators in public facilities

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9884
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-87
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, supports where feasible and cost-effective the installation of automatic external defibrillators in public facilities and high traffic areas such as sports arenas.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-87
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, supports where feasible and cost-effective the installation of automatic external defibrillators in public facilities and high traffic areas such as sports arenas.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, supports where feasible and cost-effective the installation of automatic external defibrillators in public facilities and high traffic areas such as sports arenas.
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Prenatal screening tests

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9885
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC10-86
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations and other stakeholders, calls on governments to offer, promote and fund prenatal screening tests for the most common chromosomal abnormalities.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Health systems, system funding and performance
Resolution
GC10-86
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations and other stakeholders, calls on governments to offer, promote and fund prenatal screening tests for the most common chromosomal abnormalities.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations and other stakeholders, calls on governments to offer, promote and fund prenatal screening tests for the most common chromosomal abnormalities.
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Pre-mixed alcoholic energy drinks

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9901
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-78
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, urges governments to ensure that liquor boards and other relevant bodies comply with existing Health Canada regulations for the sale of pre-mixed alcoholic energy drinks.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-78
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, urges governments to ensure that liquor boards and other relevant bodies comply with existing Health Canada regulations for the sale of pre-mixed alcoholic energy drinks.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, urges governments to ensure that liquor boards and other relevant bodies comply with existing Health Canada regulations for the sale of pre-mixed alcoholic energy drinks.
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Antibiotic resistant organisms in humans

https://policybase.cma.ca/en/permalink/policy9902
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Ethics and medical professionalism
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-79
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, will work with Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada to investigate the agriculture-related release of antibiotic resistant organisms and residual antibiotics into earth and water ecosystems, as well as the role they play in the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms in humans.
Policy Type
Policy resolution
Last Reviewed
2017-03-04
Date
2010-08-25
Topics
Population health/ health equity/ public health
Ethics and medical professionalism
Health care and patient safety
Resolution
GC10-79
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, will work with Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada to investigate the agriculture-related release of antibiotic resistant organisms and residual antibiotics into earth and water ecosystems, as well as the role they play in the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms in humans.
Text
The Canadian Medical Association, in collaboration with provincial/territorial medical associations, will work with Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada to investigate the agriculture-related release of antibiotic resistant organisms and residual antibiotics into earth and water ecosystems, as well as the role they play in the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms in humans.
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15 records – page 1 of 2.